Experimental particle tracking
The nonlinear dynamics of transverse particle oscillations are being studied experimentally with several large synchrotrons. In the FNAL Tevatron and the CERN SpS, sextupole magnets are used as the sources of nonlinear forces. Studies are also being performed in the FNAL Main Ring at its injection energy, an inherently nonlinear environment. For the Tevatron studies, agreement between simulation and experiment for phase-space distortion and amplitude dependence of tune is in general good. Trapping of particles in resonance islands is observed, and island properties studied. Measurements of dynamic aperture at both the Tevatron and the SpS reveal smaller apertures than those expected from short-term tracking. Longer tracking runs, with the inclusion of synchrotron oscillations and closed-orbit errors, are necessary to achieve qualitative agreement. Though the nonlinear environment of the Main Ring is not subject to control, the results of these experiments have significant features in common with the other two experiments.
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