Advertisement

Application of recombinant DNA technology to the production of useful biomaterials

  • Tadayuki Imanaka
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Biochemical Engineering/Biotechnology book series (ABE, volume 33)

Abstract

It is now possible to clone and express a gene of interest in widely differing hosts. Among many the steps necessary for the production of useful biomaterials in industry, gene cloning, scale-up of the process, and isolation and purification of products are the most important. For the efficient cloning of specific genes, suitable host-vector systems should be selected. For the successful cultivation of recombinant organisms in a large fermentor, both expression of cloned genes and stability of recombinant plasmid are essential. For the isolation of products, protein secretion systems must be improved.

The purpose of this review is to discuss some general concepts about the application of recombinant DNA technology in industry.

Keywords

Host Cell Plasmid Stability Peptide Product Gene Dosage Effect Phage Vector 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Derynck, R. et al.: Expression of human interferon-γ in heterologous systems, in: Experimental Manipulation of Gene Expression (ed. Inouye, M.), p. 247, New York, Academic Press 1983Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Imanaka, T. et al.: J. Bacteriol. 147, 776 (1981)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Aiba, S., Tsunekawa, H., Imanaka, T.: Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 43, 289 (1982)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Imanaka, T., Aiba, S.: Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 369, 1 (1981)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bachmann, B. J.: Microbiol. Rev. 47, 180 (1983)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Mandel, M., Higa, A.: J. Mol. Biol. 53, 159 (1970)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Henner, D. J., Hoch, J. A.: Microbiol. Rev. 44, 57 (1980)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Priest, F. G.: Bacteriol. Rev. 41, 711 (1977)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Aiba, S., Imanaka, T., Koizumi, J.: Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 413, 57 (1983)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sonnleitner, B., Fiechter, A.: Trends Biotechnol. 1, 74 (1983)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hopwood, D. A.: Symp. Soc. Gen. Microbiol. 31, 187 (1981)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Mortimer, R., Schild, D.: Microbiol. Rev. 44, 519 (1980)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Spandidos, D. A., Wilkie, N. M.: Expression of exogenous DNA in mammalian cells, in: Transcription and Translation (eds. Hames, B. D., Higgins, S. J.), p. 1, Oxford, IRL Press 1984Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Shaw, C. H. et al.: Gene 23, 315 (1983)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mainwaring, W. I. P. et al.: Nucleic Acid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, p. 485, Oxford, Blackwell Scientific Publications 1982Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Rodriguez, R. L., Tait, R. C.: Recombinant DNA Techniques: An Introduction, p. 4, Reading, Addison-Wesley Publishing Co. 1983Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Collins, J., Hohn, B.: Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 75, 4242 (1978)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Herskowitz, I. H.: Principles of Genetics, p. 182, New York, Macmillan Publishing Co. 19772 Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Van den Hondel, C. A. M. J. J. et al.: Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 77, 1570 (1980)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Golden, S. S., Sherman, L. A.: J. Bacteriol. 158, 36 (1984)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Fornari, C. S., Kaplan, S.: ibid. 152, 89 (1982)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Holsters, M. et al.: Mol. Gen. Genet. 163, 181 (1978)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Gallie, D. R. et al.: J. Bacteriol. 157, 739 (1984)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    David, M., Tronchet, M., Dénarié, J.: ibid. 146, 1154 (1981)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Sano, Y., Kageyama, M.: J. Gen. Appl. Microbiol. 23, 183 (1977)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Mercer, A. A., Loutit, J. S.: J. Bacteriol. 140, 37 (1979)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Aiba, S., Imanaka, T., Kondo, H.: unpublished dataGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Panopoulos, N. J., Staskawicz, B. J., Sandlin, D.: Search for plasmid associated traits and for a cloning vector in Pseudomonas phaseolicola, in: Plasmids of Medical, Environmental and Commercial Importance (eds. Timmis, K. N., Pühler, A.), p. 365, Amsterdam, Elsevier/North-Holland Biomedical Press 1979Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Chakrabarty, A. M. et al.: Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 72, 3647 (1975)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Bagdasarian, M. et al.: Gene 16, 237 (1981)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kiss, G. B., Kálmán, Z.: J. Bacteriol. 150, 465 (1982)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Hinton, J. C. D. et al.: ibid. 161, 786 (1985)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Cohen, S. N., Chang, A. C. Y., Hsu, L.: Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 69, 2110 (1972)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Albritton, W. L., Bendler, J. W., Setlow, J. K.: J. Bacteriol. 145, 1099 (1981)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Notani, N. K. et al.: ibid. 148, 812 (1981)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Lederberg, E. M., Cohen, S. N.: ibid. 119, 1072 (1974)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Lindberg, M., Sjostrom, J.-E., Johansson, T.: ibid. 109 844 (1972)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Lindberg, M., Novick, R. P.: ibid. 115, 139 (1973)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Kondo, J. K., McKay, L. L.: Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 43, 1213 (1982)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Kondo, J. K., McKay, L. L.: ibid. 48, 252 (1984)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Barany, F., Tomasz, A.: J. Bacteriol. 144, 698 (1980)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Saunders, C. W., Guild, W. R.: Mol. Gen. Genet. 180, 573 (1980)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    LeBlanc, D. J., Hassell, F. P.: J. Bacteriol. 128, 347 (1976)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    LeBlanc, D. J., Cohen, L., Jensen, L.: J. Gen. Microbiol. 106, 49 (1978)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Akamatsu, T., Sekiguchi, J.: Agric. Biol. Chem. 46, 1617 (1982)Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Brown, B. J., Carlton, B. C.: J. Bacteriol. 142, 508 (1980)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    McDonald, K. O., Burke, W. F. Jr.: J. Gen. Microbiol. 130, 203 (1984)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Ehrlich, S. D.: Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 74, 1680 (1977)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Gryczan, T. J., Contente, S., Dubnau, D.: J. Bacteriol. 134, 318 (1978)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Keggins, K. M., Lovett, P. S., Duvall, E. J.: Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 75, 1423 (1978)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Chang, S., Cohen, S. N.: Mol. Gen. Genet. 168, 111 (1979)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Imanaka, T. et al.: J. Bacteriol. 149, 824 (1982)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Martin, P. A. W., Lohr, J. R., Dean, D. H.: ibid. 145, 980 (1981)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Reid, S. J. et al.: Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 45, 305 (1983)Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Heefner, D. L. et al.: J. Bacteriol. 159, 460 (1984)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Katsumata, R. et al.: ibid. 159, 306 (1984)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Kieser, T. et al.: Mol. Gen. Genet. 185, 223 (1982)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Richardson, M. A. et al.: Gene 20, 451 (1982)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Horinouchi, S., Kumada, Y., Beppu, T.: J. Bacteriol. 158, 481 (1984)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Murakami, T. et al.: J. Antibiot. 36, 1305 (1983)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Bibb, M. J., Ward, J. M., Hopwood, D. A.: Nature 274, 398 (1978)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Malpartida, F., Hopwood, D. A.: ibid. 309, 462 (1984)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Manis, J. J., Highlander, S. K.: Gene 18, 13 (1982)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Jones, M. D. et al.: Plasmid 11, 92 (1984)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Larson, J. L., Hershberger, C. L.: J. Bacteriol. 157, 314 (1984)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Ohnuki, T., Imanaka, T., Aiba, S.: Gene 25, 155 (1983)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Nabeshima, S. et al.: J. Antibiot. 37, 1026 (1984)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Kobayashi, T. et al.: ibid. 37, 368 (1984)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Thompson, C. J., Ward, J. M., Hopwood, D. A.: Nature 286, 525 (1980)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Bibb, M., Schottel, J. L., Cohen, S. N.: ibid. 284, 526 (1980)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Schrempf, H.: J. Bacteriol. 151, 701 (1982)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Das, S., Kellermann, E., Hollenberg, C. P.: ibid. 158 1165 (1984)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Das, S., Hollenberg, C. P.: Curr. Genet. 6, 123 (1982)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    De Louvencourt, L. et al.: J. Bacteriol. 154, 737 (1983)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Beggs, J. D.: Nature 275, 104 (1978)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Hinnen, A., Hicks, J. B., Fink, G. R.: Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 75, 1929 (1979)Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Struhl, K. et al.: ibid. 76, 1035 (1979)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Ito, H. et al.: J. Bacteriol. 153, 163 (1983)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Beach, D., Nurse, P.: Nature 290, 140 (1981)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Case, M. E. et al.: Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 76, 5259 (1979)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Hughes, K. et al.: ibid. 80, 1053 (1983)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Anagnostopoulos, C., Spizizen, J.: J. Bacteriol. 81, 741 (1961)Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Gryczan, T., Contente, S., Dubnau, D.: Mol. Gen. Genet. 177, 459 (1980)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Weinrauch, Y., Dubnau, D.: J. Bacteriol. 154, 1077 (1983)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Old, R. W., Primrose, S. B.: Principles of Gene Manipulation, p. 48, Oxford, Balckwell Scientific Publications 19812 Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Mottes, M. et al.: Mol. Gen. Genet. 174, 281 (1979)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Canosi, U., Iglesias, A., Trautner, T. A.: ibid. 181, 434 (1981)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Clancy, S. et al.: J. Bacteriol. 159, 1065 (1984)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Ruhfel, R. E., Robillard, N. J., Thorne, C. B.: ibid. 157, 708 (1984)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Hardy, K.: Bacterial Plasmids, p. 21, American Society for Microbiology 1981Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Murooka, Y., Takizawa, N., Harada, T.: J. Bacteriol. 145, 358 (1981)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Murooka, Y. et al.: Agric. Biol. Chem. 47, 1807 (1983)Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Scott, J. R.: Microbiol. Rev. 48, 1 (1984)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Ogura, T., Hiraga, S.: Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 80, 4784 (1983)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Jacob, F., Brenner, S., Cuzin, F.: Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 28, 329 (1963)Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Nordström, K., Ingram, L. C., Lumbäck, A.: J. Bacteriol. 110, 562 (1972)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Novick, R. P.: Mol. Gen. Genet. 135, 131 (1974)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Ogura, T., Hiraga, S.: Cell 32, 351 (1983)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Miller, C. A. et al.: Gene 24, 309 (1983)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Austin, S. J.: J. Bacteriol. 158, 742 (1984)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Meacock, P. A., Cohen, S. N.: Cell 20, 529 (1980)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Sparks, R. B., Helinski, D. R.: Nature 277, 572 (1979)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Winston, S., Sueoka, N.: Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 77, 2834 (1980)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Novick, R. et al.: Plasmid 3, 348 (1980)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Timmis, K. N. et al.: Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 43, 105 (1979)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Tomizawa, J., Itoh, T.: Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 78, 6096 (1981)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Imanaka, T., Tsunekawa, H., Aiba, S.: J. Gen. Microbiol. 118, 253 (1980)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Von Meyenburg, K. et al.: Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 43, 121 (1979)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Tsunekawa, H. et al.: J. Gen. Microbiol. 127, 93 (1981)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Dwivedi, C. P., Imanaka, T., Aiba, S.: Biotechnol. Bioeng. 24, 1465 (1982)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Ollis, D. F., Chang, H. T.: ibid. 24, 2583 (1982)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Skogman, G., Nilsson, J., Gustafsson, P.: Gene 23, 105 (1983)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Uhlin, B. E. et al.: ibid. 6, 91 (1979)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Remaut, E., Tsao, H., Fiers, W.: ibid. 22, 103 (1983)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Edlin, G., Tait, R. C., Rodriguez, R. L.: Biotechnol. 2, 251 (1984)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Biel, S. W., Hartl, D. L.: Genetics 103, 581 (1983)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Tanaka, T.: Mol. Gen. Genet. 175, 235 (1979)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Bremer, E. et al.: ibid. 179, 13 (1980)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Ostroff, G. R., Péne, J. J.: J. Bacteriol. 156, 934 (1983)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Miwa, K., Nakamori, S., Momose, H.: Seikagaku 53, 816 (1981)Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Momose, H., Gorini, L.: Genetics 67, 19 (1971)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Sumitani, T. et al.: Japan patent 58-78589 (1983)Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Saito, H., Anzai, H., Kawamura, F.: Multicopy intergration vectors in Bacillus subtilis, in: Genetics of Industrial Microorganisms (eds. Ikeda, Y., Beppu, T.), p. 125, Tokyo, Kodansha 1982Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Struhl, K. et al.: Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 76, 1035 (1979)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Clarke, L., Carbon, J.: Nature 287, 504 (1980)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Close, T. J., Zaitlin, D., Kado, C. I.: Plasmid 12, 111 (1984)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Imanaka, T. et al.: J. Gen. Microbiol. 130, 1399 (1984)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Rosenberg, M., Court, D.: Ann. Rev. Genet. 13, 319 (1979)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Taylor, W. E. et al.: Cell 38, 371 (1984)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Grossman, A. D., Erickson, J. W., Gross, C. A.: ibid. 38, 383 (1984)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Takagi, M., Imanaka, T., Aiba, S.: J. Bacteriol. 163, 824 (1985)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Pribnow, D.: Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 72, 784 (1975)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Gilbert, W.: Starting and stopping sequences for the RNA polymerase, in: RNA Polymerase (eds. Losick, R., Chamberlin, M.), p. 193, New York, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory 1976Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Stefano, J. E., Gralla, J. D.: Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 79, 1069 (1982)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Russell, D. R., Bennett, G. N.: Gene 20, 231 (1982)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    De Boer, H. A., Comstock, L. J., Vasser, M.: Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 80, 21 (1983)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Amann, E., Brosius, J., Ptashne, M.: Gene 25, 167 (1983)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Nakamura, K., Inouye, M.: EMBO J. 1, 771 (1982)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Goeddel, D. V. et al.: Nucleic Acids Res. 8, 4057 (1980)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Wang, P.-Z., Doi, R. H.: J. Biol. Chem. 259, 8619 (1984)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Kozak, M.: Microbiol. Rev. 47, 1 (1983)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Gold, L. et al.: Ann. Rev. Microbiol. 35, 365 (1981)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Gheysen, D. et al.: Gene 17, 55 (1982)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Jay, E. et al.: Nucleic Acids Res. 10, 6319 (1982)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Lee, N., Nakamura, K., Inouye, M.: J. Bacteriol. 146, 861 (1981)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Gentz, R. et al.: Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 78, 4936 (1981)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Yanofsky, C.: Nature 289, 751 (1981)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Tacon, W. C. A. et al.: Gene 23, 255 (1983)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Ikemura, T., Ozeki, H.: Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 47, 1087 (1983)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Blobel, G.: Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 77, 1496 (1980)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Kreil, G.: Ann. Rev. Biochem. 50, 317 (1981)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Watson, M. E. E.: Nucleic Acids Res. 12, 5145 (1984)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Silhavy, T. J., Benson, S. A., Emr, S. D.: Microbiol. Rev. 47, 313 (1983)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Lazzaroni, J. C., Portalier, R.: Eur. J. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 16, 146 (1982)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Gray, O., Chang, S.: J. Bacteriol. 145, 422 (1981)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Fujii, M., Imanaka, T., Aiba, S.: J. Gen. Microbiol. 128, 2997 (1982)Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    Palva, I.: Gene 19, 81 (1982)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Aiba, S., Kitai, K., Imanaka, T.: Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 46, 1059 (1983)Google Scholar
  159. 159.
    Yamazaki, H. et al.: J. Bacteriol. 156, 327 (1983)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Fujii, M. et al.: ibid. 154, 831 (1983)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Vasantha, N. et al.: ibid. 159, 811 (1984)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Yang, M. Y., Ferrari, E., Henner, D. J.: ibid. 160, 15 (1984)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Palva, I. et al.: Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 79, 5582 (1982)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Palva, I. et al.: Gene 22, 229 (1983)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Ito, K., Bassford, P. J., Beckwith, J.: Cell 24, 707 (1981)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Sibakov, M., Sarvas, M., Palva, I.: FEMS Microbiol. Letters 17, 81 (1983)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Talmadge, K., Gilbert, W.: Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 79, 1830 (1982)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Imanaka, T. et al.: J. Gen. Microbiol. 129, 2621 (1983)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Alton, N. K. et al.: Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 79, 1955 (1982)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Kawamura, F., Doi, R. H.: J. Bacteriol. 160, 442 (1984)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Yutani, K. et al.: Nature (London) 267, 274 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Matsumura, M. et al.: J. Bacteriol. 160, 413 (1984)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Sonnleitner, B., Fiechter, A.: Trends Biotechnol. 1, 74 (1983)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Ljungdahl, L. G.: Adv. Microb. Physiol. 19, 149 (1979)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Imanaka, T., Fujii, M., Aiba, S.: J. Bacteriol. 146, 1091 (1981)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Office of Technology Assessment: Genetic Technology, Boulder, Westview Press 1982Google Scholar
  177. 177.
    Cohen, S. N. et al.: Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 70, 3240 (1973)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Morrow, J. F. et al.: ibid. 71, 1743 (1974)PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tadayuki Imanaka
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Fermentation Technology, Faculty of EngineeringOsaka UniversityOsakaJapan

Personalised recommendations