An approach for an adaptive visualization in a mobile environment
With the evolving availability of wireless communication services and of affordable mobile devices such as notebooks or Personal Digital Assistants, mobile computing is becoming widely accepted and applied. It is one further step towards the vision of information access for anyone, anytime, anywhere. Now, mobile multimedia applications are needed to make the vision more real. However, because of the narrow bandwidth of wireless wide-area networks and the limited resources of mobile devices in comparison to stationary systems, the handling of multimedia data faces severe problems. This leads to a need for effective solutions that enable the interactive handling with multimedia services even over a wireless link.
In this paper we present an approach to optimize the rendering process in terms of response time in a mobile environment that is composed of a mobile client and several stationary servers. We propose an architecture that adapts the rendering tasks to the available resource environment. The main idea is to use the knowledge about the application semantic data, the resource environment, and the user preferences to find a good trade-off between the limitations.
As a first experiment for the adaptation platform, we present a WWW rendering application using VRML 2.0 (Virtual Reality Modeling Language), which filters VRML scenes in order to render only parts selected by the user. It illustrates the handling of application semantic data that can be used to adapt the rendering process.
KeywordsMobile Device Mobile Application Mobile Computing Mobile Environment Mobile Client
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.A. Bakre and B.R. Badrinath. I-TCP: Indirect TCP for Mobile Hosts. In Proc. 15th International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS), pages 136–143, Vancouver, British Columbia, May 1995.Google Scholar
- 2.G. H. Forman and J. Zahorjan. The Challenges of Mobile Computing. IEEE Computer, 27(4):38–47, April 1994.Google Scholar
- 3.A. Fox and E. A. Brewer. Reducing WWW Latency and Bandwidth Requirements by Real-Time Distillation. In Fifth International World-Wide Web Conference, Paris, France, May 1996. (http://www5conf.inria.fr/fich_html/papers/P48/Overview.html).Google Scholar
- 4.A. Fox, S. D. Gribble, E. A. Brewer, and E. Ami. Adapting to Network and Client Variation via On-Demand, Dynamic Distillation. In Proc, ASPLOS-VII, October 1996.Google Scholar
- 5.J. Gosling, B. Joy, and G. Steele. The Java Language Specification-Version 1.0. Java Series. Addison-Wesley, 1996. (http://java.sun.com/doc/language_specification/index.html).Google Scholar
- 6.IBM, WT Mobile Data Communication — ARTe, Heidelberg, Germany. IBM ARTour-Technical Overview, 1995.Google Scholar
- 7.L. Neumann, J. Zhang, and R. Strack. Evaluation of the Existing and Forthcoming Mobile Infrastructure. MOMID Deliverable 2, Computer Graphics Center, March 1996.Google Scholar
- 8.Object Management Group (OMG). CORBAservices: Common object services specification. Revised Edition 95-3-31, March 1995.Google Scholar
- 9.A. B. Raposo, L. Neumann, L. P. MagalhÃes, and I. L. M. Ricarte. Efficient Visualization in a Mobile WWW Environment. Technical Report DCA 001/97, DCA — FECC — UNICAMP, 1997. (ftp://ftp.dca.fee.unicamp.br/pub/docs/techrep/1997/index.html).Google Scholar
- 10.M. Satyanarayanan. Fundamental Challenges in Mobile Computing. In 15th. ACM Symposium on Principles of Distributed Computing, Philadelphia, PA, May 1996. (http://www.cs.cmu.edu/afs/cs/project/coda/Web/docs-coda.html).Google Scholar
- 11.M. Satyanarayanan. Mobile Information Access. IEEE Personal Communications, 3(1), February 1996. (http://www.cs.cmu.edu/afs/cs/project/coda/Web/docs-coda.html).Google Scholar
- 12.A. Schill, B. Bellmann, W. Böhmak, and S Kümmel. System Support for Mobile Distributed Applications. IEEE Workshop on Services in Distributed and Networked Environments (SDNE), pages 124–131, June 1995.Google Scholar
- 13.J. Solomon. Applicability Statement for IP Mobility Support. RFC 2005, Internet Network Working Group, October 1996.Google Scholar
- 14.The Virtual Reality Modeling Language Specification — Version 2.0, ISO/IEC DIS 14772-1, April 1997. (http://vrml.sgi.com/moving-worlds).Google Scholar
- 15.T. Watson. Application Design for Wireless Computing. In Workshop on Mobile Computing Systems and Applications, Santa Cruz, December 1994. (http://snapple.cs.Washington.edu:600/wit/presentations.html).Google Scholar
- 16.T. Watson, B. Bershad, and H. Levy. Using application data semantics to guide system network policies. In SOSP'95 WIP Session, 1995.Google Scholar
- 17.B. Zenel and D. Duchamp. Intelligent Communication Filtering for Limited Bandwidth Environments. In Proc. 5th IEEE Workshop on Hot Topics in Operating Systems (HotOS-V), Rosario Resort, Orcas Island, Washington, U.S., May 1995. IEE Computer Society Press.Google Scholar