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Carbon Footprint and Energy Estimation of the Sugar Industry: An Indian Case Study

  • VarunEmail author
  • Manish Kumar  Chauhan
Chapter
Part of the EcoProduction book series (ECOPROD)

Abstract

The sugar industry plays a vital role in the world’s economy. It also affects the environment directly and indirectly; hence, greenhouse gas (GHG) emission estimation and energy savings in the sugar industry are very important. To improve the efficiency of the plant and analyze the life cycle energy usage and emissions from the sugar industry, a complete Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is needed. A major portion of sugar is produced from sugarcane. Sugar is produced as the main consumable product; molasses and bagasse are byproducts and filter cake is a waste product. These byproducts and waste products are used again for different purposes. The capacity of sugar plants in the present study is 12,000 tons of cane per day in a sugar mill, 60 MW in a cogeneration power plant, and 270 kL per day in a distillery. The LCA mainly focuses on primary energy usage and its externalities. In this chapter, energy usage and GHG emissions from the sugar industry were obtained through an economic input-output model. A comparative analysis of GHG emission has also been carried out using a process chain analysis approach.

Keywords

LCA Energy use GHG emissions Sugar industry Economic input-output 

Abbreviations

Descriptions

BOP

Balance of plant

Cd

Cadmium

CH4

Methane

CMU

Carnegie Mellon University

CO

Carbon monoxide

CO2

Carbon dioxide

COD

Chemical oxygen demand

CW

Circulating-water

EIO

Economic input-output

EOT

Electric overhead travelling crane

E&M

Electromechanical

FCS

Filtrate clarification system

GHG

Greenhouse gas

Gm

Gram

GWP

Global warming potential

HT

High tension

I-O

Input output

IPCC

International Panel on Climate Change

ISO

International standard organization

Kg

Kilogram

kJ

Kilojoules

klpd

Kiloliter per day

kWh

Kilowatt hour

LCA

Life cycle assessment

LCIA

Life cycle impact assessment

LT

Low tension

MCC

Motor control center

MJ

Megajoules

MS

Mild steel

Mt

Million tons

MW

Megawatts

NOX

Nitrogen oxide

OC

Oliver Campbell

O&M

Operation and maintenance

PCA

Process chain analysis

PCC

Power control center

PPP

Purchase power parity

SO2

Sulfur dioxide

T

Tons

TCD

Tons of cane per day

TJ

Terajoule

TSP

Total suspended particles

TSS

Total soluble salts

UASB

Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket

USDA

U.S. Department of Agriculture

VFD

Variable frequency drive

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Indian Rupees

$

US Dollar

Subscript

e

Electricity

eq

Equivalent

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors thankfully acknowledge the authorities of Dhampur Sugar Mills Limited (DSML), Dhampur, Uttar Pradesh, for visiting the sugar industry and providing valuable data.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Singapore 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringNational Institute of TechnologyHamirpurIndia
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical and Industrial EngineeringIndian Institute of TechnologyRoorkeeIndia

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