Part of the SpringerBriefs in Materials book series (BRIEFSMATERIALS)


The ability and desire for constant communication between human being is the distinguishing characteristic of mankind. Human beings have always been interested in finding ways to communicate among each other through numerous ways. Their ability to use language to build words, combine these into significant sequences and then articulate them through speech that makes them the most powerful communicators on the planet has always been increasing with the passage of time.


Stimulate Raman Scattering Semiconductor Optical Amplifier Wavelength Conversion Integrate Optic Dense Wavelength Division Multiplex 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.HITEC UniversityTaxilaPakistan
  2. 2.School of Electrical and Electronic EngineeringNanyang Technological UniversitySingaporeSingapore
  3. 3.HITEC UniversityTaxilaPakistan

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