Possible Countermeasures to Govern Child Soldiering

  • Kai ChenEmail author
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Criminology book series (BRIEFSCRIMINOL)


In accordance with the principles of public-private partnership, this chapter suggests a series of countermeasures in order to govern child soldiering on the Myanmar-China border.


Discipline Building trust Flexibilities Supervising mechanism International awareness 


  1. Ahram AI (2011) Proxy warriors: the rise and fall of state-sponsored militias. Stanford Security Studies, StanfordGoogle Scholar
  2. Boothby N (2006) What happens when child soldiers grow up? The Mozambique case study. Intervention 4(3):244–259. doi:10.1097/WTF.0b013e32801181abCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Burma News International (2013) Deciphering myanmar’s peace process: a reference guide 2013. Accessed 21 May 2013
  4. Child Soldiers International (2012) Louder than words: an agenda for action to end state use of  child  soldiers. Accessed 21 May 2013
  5. Child Soldiers International (2013) Chance for change–Ending the recruitment and use of child soldiers in Myanmar. Accessed 21 May 2013
  6. Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers (2008R) Child Soldiers Global Report. London: Bell & Bain. Accessed 21 May 2013
  7. Heppner K, Mathieson D, Human Rights W (2007) Sold to be soldiers: the recruitment and use of child soldiers in Burma. Human Rights Watch, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  8. Honwana A (2008) Children’s involvement in war: historical and social contexts. J History Childhood Youth 1(1):139–149. doi:10.1353/hcy.2008.0004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. International Crisis Group (2002) Myanmar: the politics of humanitarian aid. International Crisis Group, BangkokGoogle Scholar
  10. International Crisis Group (2011a) Myanmar: major reform underway. Asia Briefing N°127. Accessed 21 May 2013
  11. International Crisis Group (2011b) Myanmar’s post-election landscape. Asia Briefing N°118. Accessed 21 May 2013
  12. IRIN (August 20, 2012a) MYANMAR: Rebels pledge no more child soldiers.  Accessed  21 May 2013
  13. IRIN (April 11, 2012b) MYANMAR: Cross-line NGOs in Kachin need support. Accessed 21 May 2013
  14. Kinetz E (2013, March 5) Burma to open offshore oil and gas bids by April. Accessed 21 May 2013
  15. Kramer T, Woods K (2012) Financing dispossession China’s opium substitution programme in Northern Burma. Transnational Institute. Accessed 21 May 2013
  16. Lall V (2012, October 22) Why CSR matters in new Myanmar. The Myanmar times. Accessed 21 May 2013
  17. Lorch J (2008) The (re)-emergence of civil society in areas of state weakness: the case of education in Burma/Myanmar. Dictatorship, disorder and decline in Myanmar. In: Skidmore M, Wilson T. Dictatorship, disorder and decline in Myanmar. ANU E Press, CanberraGoogle Scholar
  18. Maslen S (1998) The use of children as soldiers: the right to kill and be killed? Int J Child Rights 6(4):445–451. doi:10.1163/15718189820494148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ministry of National Planning and Economic Development and UNICEF (2012) Situation analysis of children in Myanmar. UNICEF, Nay Pyi TawGoogle Scholar
  20. O’Neill (2001) Agents of justice. Metaphilosophy 32(1-2), 180–195. doi:10.1111/1467-9973.00181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Price G (2011) Burma: time for. change? Chatham house. Accessed 21 May 2013
  22. Reuters (2013, Jan 18) Myanmar invites bids for 18 onshore oil blocks. Accessed 21 May 2013
  23. Rosen DM (2012) Child soldiers: a reference handbook. ABC–CLIO, Santa BarbaraGoogle Scholar
  24. Rosenau W (2009) Corporations and counterinsurgency (Occasional paper, Vol. OP-259). RAND, Santa MonicaGoogle Scholar
  25. Schober J (2011) Modern Buddhist conjunctures in Myanmar: cultural narratives, colonial legacies, and civil society. University of Hawaií Press, HonoluluGoogle Scholar
  26. Shein MT, Thu CM (2011, October 20) “Sixty-five percent of foreign investment concentrated in resource rich Kachin, Rakhine, Shan States.” Eleven Media Group. Accessed 21 May 2013
  27. Singer PW (2004) Talk is cheap: getting serious about preventing child soldiers. Cornell Int’l LJ 37(3):561–586Google Scholar
  28. Singer PW (2005) Children at war. Pantheon Books, New York Google Scholar
  29. Singer, PW (2005) Addressing the global challenge of child soldiers. In: Bryden, A, Hänggi, H, Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces (eds) Security governance in post-conflict peacebuilding. LIT, MünsterGoogle Scholar
  30. Smith G (2010) The Criminal Justice Response to Human Trafficking. UNIAP’s Strategic Information Response Network. Accessed 21 May 2013
  31. South A, Perhult M, Carstensen N (2010) Conflict and survival: self-protection in South-East Burma. Asia programme paper: ASP PP 2010/04. Chatham house. Accessed 21 May 2013
  32. Terry, F (2011) “Myanmar:‘Golfing with the generals’”. In: Magone, C, Neuman, M, Weissman, F (eds) Humanitarian negotiations revealed: the MSF experience. Hurst & Co Publishers, LondonGoogle Scholar
  33. The Watchlist on Children and Armed Conflict (2009) No more denial: Children affected by armed conflict in Myanmar (Burma). Accessed 21 May 2013
  34. UNAIDS (2012) Global AIDS response progress report: Myanmar. Accessed 21 May 2013
  35. United Nations (1996) Impact of armed conflict on children. A/51/306/Add.1. Accessed 21 May 2013
  36. United Nations (2005) Children and armed conflict. A/59/695-S/2005/72. Accessed 21 May 2013
  37. United Nations (2006a) Operational guide to the integrated disarmament, demobilization and reintegration standards. UN, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  38. United Nations (2006b) Disarmament, demobilization and reintegration. A/60/705.  Accessed 21 May 2013
  39. United Nations (2007a) Children and armed conflict. A/62/609-S/2007/757. Accessed 21 May 2013
  40. United Nations (2007b) Report of the secretary-general on children and armed conflict in Myanmar. S/2007/666. Accessed 21 May 2013
  41. United Nations (2009) Report of the secretary-general on children and armed conflict in Myanmar. S/2009/278. Accessed 21 May 2013
  42. United Nations (2011a) Annual report of the special representative of the SG for children and armed conflict Radhika Coomaraswamy. A/HRC/18/38. Accessed 21 May 2013
  43. United Nations (2011b) Progress report of the Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in Myanmar. A/HRC/16/59. Accessed 21 May 2013
  44. United Nations (2011c) Report of the special representative of the secretary-general for children and armed conflict. A/66/256. Accessed 21 May 2013
  45. US Department of State. Bureau of International Narcotics, M, United States. Bureau for International, N, Law Enforcement, A (2013) International narcotics control strategy report. Volume I Drug and Chemical Control. Accessed 21 May 2013
  46. Wainryb C (2011) ‘And so they ordered me to kill a person’: conceptualizing the impacts of child soldiering on the development of moral agency. Hum Dev 54(5):273–300. doi:10.1159/000331482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. World Economic Forum (2005) Building on the monterrey consensus: the growing role of public-private partnerships in mobilizing resources for development. Accessed 21 May 2013

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Singapore 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The Center for Non-Traditional Security and Peaceful Development Studies College of Public AdministrationZhejiang UniversityHangzhouPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations