Joint Function of Perceived Classroom Goal Orientations and Personal Goals on Students’ School Success

  • Yanhua Zhao
  • Rudolf Tippelt


This study aimed to expand the achievement goal model in predicting student well-being proposed by Kaplan and Maehr (Contemp Educ Psychol 24(4): 330–358, 1999). A structural equation model encompassing classroom goal orientations, personal achievement goals, and school success (well-being and achievement) was proposed. The model posited that perceived classroom goal orientations and personal goals play integrative functions in explaining school success, which was examined with a sample of 507 Chinese secondary school students. Results indicated that classroom mastery orientation positively predicted personal mastery goals and school success and negatively predicted performance-approach goals. Classroom performance orientation positively predicted the adoption of both personal goals. Classroom and personal performance-approach goals led to negative affect. Mastery goals partially mediated the effects of classroom mastery orientation on positive affect and achievement and the effects of classroom performance orientation on school success indices. The mediation effect of personal performance goals was only observed between classroom performance orientation and negative affect. Findings suggested that the integrated functions of classroom-level goal orientations and personal-level achievement goals are instrumental to understand student motivation, emotions, and school-related outcomes.


Life Satisfaction Negative Affect Positive Affect Achievement Goal Goal Orientation 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Singapore 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yanhua Zhao
    • 1
  • Rudolf Tippelt
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Psychology and EducationLudwig-Maximilians-Universitaet of MunichMunichGermany

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