Critical Thinking: The Chinese Way

  • Charlene Tan
Part of the Education in the Asia-Pacific Region: Issues, Concerns and Prospects book series (EDAP, volume 21)


Shanghai educators adopt ‘Chinese-style’ critical thinking that is culturally appropriate and necessary to prepare their students for their exams.


Critical Thinking Chinese Language Lesson Observation Essay Question Thesis Statement 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Areepattamannil, S. (2012, March). Influences of metacognitive and self-regulated learning strategies for reading on mathematical literacy of adolescents in four high-performing education systems. Paper presented at the CRPP Research Seminar, National Institute of Education, Singapore.Google Scholar
  2. Cheng, K.-M. (2011). Shanghai: How a big city in a developing country leaped to the head of the class. In M. S. Tucker (Ed.), “Surpassing Shanghai”: An agenda for American education built on the world’s leading systems (pp. 21–50). Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Chiu, Y.-C. J. (2009). Facilitating Asian students’ critical thinking in online discussions. British Journal of Educational Technology, 40(1), 42–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Durkin, K. (2008). The adaptation of East Asian masters students to western norms of critical thinking and argumentation in the UK. Intercultural Education, 19(1), 15–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Elder, L. (2007). Our concept and definition of critical thinking. Accessed 8 Jan 2012.
  6. Ennis, R. H. (1987). A taxonomy of critical thinking dispositions and abilities. In J. B. Brown & R. J. Sternberg (Eds.), Teaching thinking skills: Theory and practice (pp. 9–26). New York: W.H. Freeman.Google Scholar
  7. Ennis, R. H. (1996). Critical thinking. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  8. Fisher, A. (2001). Critical thinking: An introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  9. Glaser, E. M. (1941). An experiment in the development of critical thinking. New York: Teacher’s College, Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  10. Halstead, M., & Zhu, C. (2009). Autonomy as an element in Chinese educational reform: A case study of English lessons in a senior high school in Beijing. Asia Pacific Journal of Education, 29(4), 443–456.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Han, K., & Scull, W. (2010). Confucius culture in the mainstream classroom: A case study of an Asian American student. The International Journal of Learning, 17(1), 601–616.Google Scholar
  12. Ho, X. (2006). Xiaoben kecheng de kaifa he guanli [The launch and management of school-based curriculum]. In Y. Shen (Ed.), Zou xiang youzhi jiaoyu [Walking towards quality education] (pp. 170–192). Shanghai: East China Normal University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Kim, H.-K. (2003). Critical thinking, learning and confucius: A positive assessment. Journal of Philosophy of Education, 37(1), 71–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Lipman, M. (1998). Critical thinking – What can it be? Educational Leadership, 46, 38–43.Google Scholar
  15. Lipman, M. (2003). Thinking in education (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lipman, M. (2007). Education for critical thinking. In R. Curren (Ed.), Philosophy of education: An anthology (pp. 427–434). Malden: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.Google Scholar
  17. Marzano, R. J., Waters, T., & McNulty, B. A. (2005). School leadership that works: From research to results. Alexandria: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.Google Scholar
  18. OECD [Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development]. (2010a). PISA 2009 results: What makes a school successful? – Resources, policies and practices (Vol. IV). Accessed 12 Apr 2011.
  19. Paul, R. W. (1988). What, then, is critical thinking? Rohnert Park: Center for Critical Thinking and Moral Critique.Google Scholar
  20. Paul, R., & Elder, L. (2008). The miniature guide to critical thinking concepts and tools. Accessed 15 Jan 2012.
  21. Shangguan, Z. M. (2005). Jiaoyu de guoji shiye [Education’s international vision]. Shanghai: East China Normal University.Google Scholar
  22. Siegel, H. (1988). Educating reason: Rationality, critical thinking, and education. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  23. Tan, C. (2006). Creating thinking schools through ‘Knowledge and Inquiry’: The curriculum challenges for Singapore. Curriculum Journal, 17(1), 89–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Tan, C. (Ed.). (2007b). Engaging films and music videos in critical thinking. Singapore: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  25. Tan, C., & Crawford, L. (2006). Knowledge and inquiry: An introduction to epistemology. Singapore: Prentice Hall.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Zhong, Q. (2006). Curriculum reform in China: Challenges and reflections. Frontiers of Education in China, 1(3), 370–382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Charlene Tan
    • 1
  1. 1.Policy and Leadership Studies National Institute of EducationNanyang Technological UniversitySingaporeSingapore

Personalised recommendations