Testing Times: Exams as Means of Central Control

  • Charlene Tan
Part of the Education in the Asia-Pacific Region: Issues, Concerns and Prospects book series (EDAP, volume 21)


The Shanghai authorities utilise various types of assessment at the municipal and district levels to maintain central control.


Education Bureau Cultural Script Senior Secondary School Shanghai Municipal Education Commission Standard Exam 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Charlene Tan
    • 1
  1. 1.Policy and Leadership Studies National Institute of EducationNanyang Technological UniversitySingaporeSingapore

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