Co-signaling Molecules in Neurological Diseases

  • Pia Kivisäkk
  • Samia J. KhouryEmail author
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 1189)


Inflammation plays an important role in the onset and progression of many neurological diseases. As the central nervous system (CNS) constitutes a highly specialized environment where immune activation can be detrimental, it is crucial to understand mechanisms by which the immune system is regulated during neurological diseases. The system of co-signaling pathways provides the immune system with the means to fine-tune immune responses by turning on and off immune cell activation. Studies of co-signaling molecules in neurological diseases and their animal models have highlighted the complexities of immune regulation within the CNS and the intricacies of the interplay between the different cells of the immune system and how they interact with the resident cells of the CNS. This complexity poses challenges when targeting co-signaling pathway to treat neurological diseases and may explain why no drugs targeting these pathways have been successfully developed this far. Here, we will review the current literature on some important co-signaling pathways in multiple sclerosis (MS), Alzheimer’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Parkinson’s disease, and ischemic stroke to understand these pathways in mediating and controlling neuroinflammation.


Costimulatory molecules Neurological diseases Multiple sclerosis Alzheimer’s disease Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis Parkinson’s disease Ischemic stroke 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Ann Romney Center for Neurologic Diseases, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA
  2. 2.Abou Haidar Neuroscience Institute and Nehme and Therese Tohme Multiple Sclerosis Center, Faculty of MedicineAmerican University of Beirut Medical CenterBeirutLebanon

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