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Signal Transduction Via Co-stimulatory and Co-inhibitory Receptors

  • Shuhei OgawaEmail author
  • Ryo Abe
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 1189)

Abstract

T-cell receptor (TCR)-mediated antigen-specific stimulation is essential for initiating T-cell activation. However, signaling through the TCR alone is not sufficient for inducing an effective response. In addition to TCR-mediated signaling, signaling through antigen-independent co-stimulatory or co-inhibitory receptors is critically important not only for the full activation and functional differentiation of T cells but also for the termination and suppression of T-cell responses. Many studies have investigated the signaling pathways underlying the function of each molecular component. Co-stimulatory and co-inhibitory receptors have no kinase activity, but their cytoplasmic region contains unique functional motifs and potential phosphorylation sites. Engagement of co-stimulatory receptors leads to recruitment of specific binding partners, such as adaptor molecules, kinases, and phosphatases, via recognition of a specific motif. Consequently, each co-stimulatory receptor transduces a unique pattern of signaling pathways. This review focuses on our current understanding of the intracellular signaling pathways provided by co-stimulatory and co-inhibitory molecules, including B7:CD28 family members, immunoglobulin, and members of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily.

Keywords

Co-stimulatory receptor Co-inhibitory receptor Signal transduction B7:CD28 family members Ig superfamily members TNFR superfamily members 

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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Experimental Animal Immunology, Research Institute for Biomedical SciencesTokyo University of ScienceChibaJapan
  2. 2.Strategic Innovation and Research CenterTeikyo UniversityTokyoJapan
  3. 3.Division of Immunobiology, Research Institute for Biomedical SciencesTokyo University of ScienceChibaJapan

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