The CD28–B7 Family of Co-signaling Molecules

  • Shigenori NagaiEmail author
  • Miyuki Azuma
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 1189)


Immune responses are controlled by the optimal balance between protective immunity and immune tolerance. T-cell receptor (TCR) signals are modulated by co-signaling molecules, which are divided into co-stimulatory and co-inhibitory molecules. By expression at the appropriate time and location, co-signaling molecules positively and negatively control T-cell differentiation and function. For example, ligation of the CD28 on T cells provides a critical secondary signal along with TCR ligation for naive T-cell activation. In contrast, co-inhibitory signaling by the CD28–B7 family is important to regulate immune homeostasis and host defense, as these signals limit the strength and duration of immune responses to prevent autoimmunity. At the same time, microorganisms or tumor cells can use these pathways to establish an immunosuppressive environment to inhibit the immune responses against themselves. Understanding these co-inhibitory pathways will support the development of new immunotherapy for the treatment of tumors and autoimmune and infectious diseases. Here, we introduce diverse molecules belonging to the members of the CD28–B7 family.


Co-stimulation Co-inhibition TCR signaling Immunoglobulin superfamily IgV IgC 


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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Molecular Immunology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental SciencesTokyo Medical and Dental UniversityTokyoJapan

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