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Costimulation Blockade in Transplantation

  • Melissa Y. YeungEmail author
  • Tanja Grimmig
  • Mohamed H. Sayegh
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 1189)

Abstract

T cells play a pivotal role in orchestrating immune responses directed against a foreign (allogeneic) graft. For T cells to become fully activated, the T-cell receptor (TCR) must interact with the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) plus peptide complex on antigen-presenting cells (APCs), followed by a second “positive” costimulatory signal. In the absence of this second signal, T cells become anergic or undergo deletion. By blocking positive costimulatory signaling, T-cell allo-responses can be aborted, thus preventing graft rejection and promoting long-term allograft survival and possibly tolerance (Alegre ML, Najafian N, Curr Mol Med 6:843–857, 2006; Li XC, Rothstein DM, Sayegh MH, Immunol Rev 229:271–293, 2009). In addition, costimulatory molecules can provide negative “coinhibitory” signals that inhibit T-cell activation and terminate immune responses; strategies to promote these pathways can also lead to graft tolerance (Boenisch O, Sayegh MH, Najafian N, Curr Opin Organ Transplant 13:373–378, 2008). However, T-cell costimulation involves an incredibly complex array of interactions that may act simultaneously or at different times in the immune response and whose relative importance varies depending on the different T-cell subsets and activation status. In transplantation, the presence of foreign alloantigen incites not only destructive T effector cells but also protective regulatory T cells, the balance of which ultimately determines the fate of the allograft (Lechler RI, Garden OA, Turka LA, Nat Rev Immunol 3:147–158, 2003). Since the processes of alloantigen-specific rejection and regulation both require activation of T cells, costimulatory interactions may have opposing or synergistic roles depending on the cell being targeted. Such complexities present both challenges and opportunities in targeting T-cell costimulatory pathways for therapeutic purposes. In this chapter, we summarize our current knowledge of the various costimulatory pathways in transplantation and review the current state and challenges of harnessing these pathways to promote graft tolerance (summarized in Table 10.1).

Keywords

Transplant Allograft Alloimmune Costimulation blockade Tolerance Belatacept 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Melissa Y. Yeung
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Tanja Grimmig
    • 3
  • Mohamed H. Sayegh
    • 1
    • 2
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Medicine, Renal DivisionBrigham and Women’s HospitalBostonUSA
  2. 2.Harvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA
  3. 3.Department of Surgery, Molecular Oncology and ImmunologyUniversity of WuerzburgWuerzburgGermany
  4. 4.Department of Medicine and ImmunologyAmerican University of BeirutBeirutLebanon

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