Advertisement

Hard Data: Voices of Africans in Australia

  • Runyararo Sihle ChivauraEmail author
Chapter
  • 115 Downloads

Abstract

The objective of this chapter was to obtain detailed first-hand information of how African immigrants living in Australia perceive their representations in the media. Second, how these representations influence how they believe they are socially recognised and what bearing this has on their everyday lives. Aforementioned in the previous chapters there tends to be an objectification of African immigrations in Australian media. Hence, in this chapter, I want to position African immigrants as the subjects of discourse in documenting their experience. The oral interviews that form the key component of this chapter gives this immigrant group the space to answer back to what is written about and for them. In my role as a researcher in this book, I am not just writing about the African experience in Australia as an external phenomenon of which I have no connection to. Instead, my research and writing to a degree also capture my lived reality. In my inclusion of the transcripts collected from the interviews as well as the digital audio files, this adds reflexivity to the data in the ways in which it is accessed in conjunction with reading this book.

Keywords

African voices First-hand information Subjects of discourse Experience Lived reality Dominant cultural narratives Racial characterisation Identity performance Xenophobia Everyday life 

References

  1. Abdelkerim, A. A., & Grace, M. (2012). Challenges to employment in newly emerging African communities in Australia: A review of the literature. Australian Social Work, 65(1), 104–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Akomfrah, J. (Excutive Producer and Director). (2013). The stuart hall project [Film]. United Kingdom: British Film Institute.Google Scholar
  3. Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2008). Census 2006—People born in Africa. Retrieved from Canberra: http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/Lookup/3416.0Main+Features32008#Top.
  4. Baak, M. (2011). Murder, community talk and belonging: An exploration of Sudanese community responses to murder in Australia. African Identities, 9(4), 417–434.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bolt, A. (2016, March 13). Our safety betrayed by ugly cover-up over refugee program. Herald Sun. Retrieved from http://www.heraldsun.com.au/news/opinion/andrew-bolt/our-safety-betrayed-by-ugly-coverup-over-refugee-program/news-story/3827c3bb3391880c042811789618e92e.
  6. Brabazon, T. (2011). Take the red pill: A new matrix of literacy. Journal of Media Literacy Education, 2(3), 209–229.Google Scholar
  7. Brabazon, T., Redhead, S., & Chivaura, R. (2016, September 30). Althusser, the tea towel and identity. Tara Brabazon Podcast. Podcast retrieved from http://hwcdn.libsyn.com/p/2/8/2/282fd0bf2d8f8bdf/Sunny_Rue_Chivaura_15_Althusser_the_tea_towel_and_identity.mp3?c_id=12330727&expiration=1470189075&hwt=f236eeeaa9cb1049689c3737e512245d.
  8. Brook, B., & Palin, M. (2016, May 24/). Deep anger at core of Apex gang causing havoc on Melbourne streets. news.com.au. Retrieved from http://www.news.com.au/national/victoria/news/deep-anger-at-core-of-apex-gang-causing-havoc-on-melbournes-streets/news-story/f4e886da66594d4ea38cb323ea069612.
  9. Cohen, R. (1994). Frontiers of identity: The British and the others. London: Longman.Google Scholar
  10. Cover, R. (2012). Community print media: Perceiving minority community in multicultural South Australia. Continuum, 27(1), 110–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Czajka, A. (2005). The African orient: Edward Said’s orientalism and ‘Western’ constructions of Africa. The Discourse of Sociological Practice, 7(1&2), 117–134.Google Scholar
  12. David, R. (2015, July 14). Report reveals young Africans feel victimised by police. Dandenong Leader. Retrieved from http://www.heraldsun.com.au/leader/south-east/report-reveals-young-africans-feel-victimised-by-police/news-story/09a2b79d8bfd929023aeb4c5606d9cdb.
  13. Denzin, N. K. (1992). Symbolic interactionism and cultural studies: The politics of interpretation. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  14. Diehl, T., Weeks, B. E., & de Zúñiga, H. G. (2015). Political persuasion on social media: Tracing direct and indirect effects of news use and social interaction. New Media & Society, 18(9), 1875–1895.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dobbin, M. (2016, March 16). Boy with links to violent Apex gang arrested over armed burglaries. The Age. Retrieved from http://www.theage.com.au/victoria/boy-with-links-to-violent-apex-gang-arrested-over-armed-burglaries-20160316-gnkxc3.html.
  16. Du Bois, W. E. B. (2014). The souls of black folk. New York: Simon & Schuster.Google Scholar
  17. Du Gay, P., Hall, S., Janes, L., & Mackay, H. (1997). Doing cultural studies: The story of the Sony Walkman. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  18. Due, C. (2008). Who are strangers’?: ‘Absorbing’ Sudanese refugees into a white Australia. Australian Critical Race and Whiteness Studies Association Journal, 4(1), 1–13.Google Scholar
  19. Elliott, A. (2011). Concepts of the self. Cambridge: Polity.Google Scholar
  20. Fanon, F. (1967). Black skin, white masks. London: Grove Press Inc.Google Scholar
  21. Fanon, F. (2011). The lived experience of the black man. In I. Szeman & T. Kaposy (Eds.), Cultural theory: An anthology (pp. 422–431). Chichester: Wiley.Google Scholar
  22. Feng, L. (2016, March 13). Festival celebrates African cultures in Sydney. Sydney Special Boardcasting Cooperation. Retrieved from http://www.sbs.com.au/news/article/2016/03/13/festival-celebrates-african-cultures-sydney.
  23. Firouzkouhi, M., & Zargham-Boroujeni, A. (2015). Data analysis in oral history: A new approach in historical research. Iranian Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Research, 20(2), 161–164.Google Scholar
  24. Fowler, R. (2007). Language in the news: Discourse and ideology in the press. London & New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  25. Fredericks, B. (2010). Reempowering ourselves: Australian aboriginal women. Signs, 35(3), 546–550.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gale, P. (2004). The refugee crisis and fear: Populist politics and media discourse. Journal of Sociology, 40(4), 321–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gatt, K. (2011). Sudanese refugees in Victoria: An analysis of their treatment by the Australian government. International Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice, 35(3), 207–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gilroy, P. (1990). The end of anti-racism. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 17(1), 71–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gilroy, P. (1992). Race, culture and difference. In J. Donald & A. Rattansi (Eds.), Race, culture and difference (pp. 49–62). London: Sage.Google Scholar
  30. Gilroy, P. (2007). The crisis of ‘Race’ and raciology. In S. During (Ed.), The cultural studies reader (pp. 264–282). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  31. Gilroy, P. (2011). It ain’t where you’re from, it’s where you at. In I. Szeman & T. Kaposy (Eds.), Cultural theory: An anthology (pp. 492–503). Chichester: Wiley.Google Scholar
  32. Goffman, E. (1959). The presentation of self in everyday life. New York: Double Bay.Google Scholar
  33. Goffman, E. (1967). On face-work, interaction ritual: Essays on face-to-face behavior. New York: Pantheon.Google Scholar
  34. Goffman, E. (2012). The presentation of self in everyday life. In C. Calhoun (Ed.), Contemporary sociological theory. New Jersey: Wiley.Google Scholar
  35. Haile-Michael, D., & Issa, M. (2015). The more things change, the more they stay the same. Retrieved from http://www.policeaccountability.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/More-Things-Change_report_softcopy.pdf.
  36. Hall, S. (1987). Minimal selves. In L. Appignanesi (Ed.), Identity: The real me. London: ICA.Google Scholar
  37. Hall, S. (1990). Cultural identity and diaspora. In J. Rutherford (Ed.), Identity: Community, culture, difference (pp. 222–237). London: Lawrence and Wishart.Google Scholar
  38. Hall, S. (1992). The question of cultural identity. In S. Hall, D. Held, & T. McGrew (Eds.), Modernity and its futures (pp. 273–322). Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  39. Hall, S. (1996). Introduction: Who needs identity. In S. Hall & P. Du Gay (Eds.), Questions of cultural identity (pp. 1–7). London: Sage.Google Scholar
  40. Hall, S. (1997). Representation: Cultural representations and signifying practices (Vol. 2). London: Sage.Google Scholar
  41. Hall, S. (2000). Old and new identities, old and new ethnicities. In L. Back & J. Solomos (Eds.), Theories of race and racism (pp. 144–153). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  42. Hall, S., & National Committee for Commonwealth Immigrants. (1967). The Young Englanders. London: National Committee for Commonwealth Immigrants.Google Scholar
  43. Hall, S., Critcher, C., Jefferson, T., Clarke, J., & Roberts, B. (1978). Policing the crisis: Mugging, the state and law and order. London: The Macmillan Press Ltd.Google Scholar
  44. Hall, S., Critcher, C., Jefferson, T., Clarke, J., & Roberts, B. (2013). Policing the crisis: Mugging, the state and law and order. London: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hasford, J. (2016). Dominant cultural narratives, racism, and resistance in the workplace: A study of the experiences of young black Canadians. American Journal of Community Psychology, 57(1–2), 158–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hatoss, A., & Huijser, H. (2010). Gendered barriers to educational opportunities: Resettlement of Sudanese refugees in Australia. Gender and Education, 22(2), 147–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hatoss, A., & Sheely, T. (2008). Language maintenance and identity among Sudanese-Australian refugee-background youth. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 30(2), 127–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Herbert, J., May, J., Wills, J., Datta, K., Evans, Y., & McIlwaine, C. (2008). Multicultural living? Experiences of everyday racism among Ghanaian migrants in London. European Urban and Regional Studies, 15(2), 103–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hochschild, A. (1999). King Leopold’s Ghost: A story of greed, terror, and heroism in colonial Africa. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.Google Scholar
  50. Hopkins, G. (2010). A changing sense of Somaliness: Somali women in London and Toronto. Gender, Place and Culture, 17(4), 519–538.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hosking, W., & Hamblin, A. (2016, March 18). Immigration minister Peter Dutton could revoke visas of Moomba brawlers. Herald Sun. Retrieved from http://www.heraldsun.com.au/news/law-order/imigration-minister-peter-dutton-could-revoke-visas-of-moomba-brawlers/news-story/e1a20e46f90c790e6bb9b2430d7fbe5d.
  52. Huggins, J. (1998). Sister girl: The writings of aboriginal activist and historian jackie huggins. Bisbane: University of Queensland Press.Google Scholar
  53. Hugo, G. (2009, December). Migration between Africa and Australia: A demographic perspective. Paper for Australian Human Rights Commission. Retrieved from https://www.humanrights.gov.au/publications/african-australians-project-migration-between-africa-and-australia-demographic.
  54. Jakubowicz, A., & Seneviratne, K. (1996). Ethnic conflict and the Australian media. Retrieved from http://www.multiculturalaustralia.edu.au/doc/jakubowicz_3.pdf.
  55. Jeffries, S. (2014, October 28). ‘Swamped’ and ‘riddled’: The toxic words that wreck public discourse. The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2014/oct/27/swamped-and-riddled-toxic-phrases-wreck-politics-immigration-michael-fallon.
  56. Johnston, C. (2016, March 14). Pizza, Kebabs and Pepper Spray in the Federation Square riot zone. The Age. Retrieved from http://www.theage.com.au/victoria/pizza-kebabs-and-pepper-spray-in-the-federation-square-riot-zone-20160314-gnim91.html.
  57. Kovel, J. (1984). White racism: A psychohistory. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  58. Kuhn, R. (2009). Xenophobic racism and class during the Howard years. Marxist Interventions, 1, 53–82.Google Scholar
  59. Lawrence, E. (1982). Just plain common sense: The ‘roots’ of racism. In Centre for Contemporary Studies (Ed.), The empire strikes back: race and racism in 70s Britain (pp. 47–94). Richmond: Hutchinson Group Australia.Google Scholar
  60. Lawrence, E. (2004). Just plain common sense: The ‘roots’ of racism. In Centre for Contemporary Studies (Ed.), Empire strikes back: Race and racism in 70s Britain (2nd ed., pp. 45–92). Cambridge: Routledge.Google Scholar
  61. Lawrence, E. (2007). Common sense, racism and the sociology of race relations In A. Gray, J. Campbell, M. Erickson, S. Hanson, & H. Wood (Eds.), CCCS selected working papers (Vol. 1, pp. 603–645). Abington: Routledge.Google Scholar
  62. Mainsah, H. (2009). Cameroonians in Oslo, diaspora, and uses of the media. Nordicom Review, 30(1), 83–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Masanauskas, J. (2015, September 14). Migrants nail the beauty business. Herald Sun. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1711276180?accountid=10910.
  64. McIntosh, L. (2015). Impossible presence: Race, nation and the cultural politics of ‘being Norwegian’. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 38(2), 309–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Mead, G. H. (1967). Mind, self & society: From the stand-point of a social behaviorist. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Mead, G. H. (2003). The Self. In E. Mendieta & L. M. Alcoff (Eds.), Identities: Race, class, gender, and nationality (pp. 32–40). Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.Google Scholar
  67. Miranda, S. M., Young, A., & Yetgin, E. (2016). Are social media emancipatory or hegemonic? Societal effects of mass media digitization. Management Information Systems Quarterly, 40(2), 303–329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Moore, K. S. (2008). Class formations competing forms of black middle-class identity. Ethnicities, 8(4), 492–517.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Moreton-Robinson, A. (2000). Talkin’ up to the white woman: Aboriginal women and feminism. Brisbane: University of Queensland Press.Google Scholar
  70. Nolan, D., Farquharson, K., Politoff, V., & Marjoribanks, T. (2011). Mediated multiculturalism: Newspaper representations of Sudanese Migrants in Australia. Journal of Intercultural Studies, 32(6), 655–671.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Nolan, D., Burgin, A., Farquharson, K., & Marjoribanks, T. (2016). Media and the politics of belonging: Sudanese Australian, letters to the editor and the new integrationism. Patterns of Prejudice, 50(3), 253–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Nunn, C. (2010). Spaces to speak: Challenging representations of Sudanese-Australians. Journal of Intercultural Studies, 31(2), 183–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. O’Doherty, K., & Lecouteur, A. (2007). “Asylum seekers”, “boat people” and “illegal immigrants”: Social categorisation in the media*. Australian Journal of Psychology, 59(1), 1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Rappaport, J. (2000). Community narratives: Tales of terror and joy. American Journal of Community Psychology, 28(1), 1–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Rousseau, N., & Cooley, C. H. (2002). Charles Horton Cooley’s concept of the looking glass self and its applications. In N. Rousseau (Ed.), Self, symbols, and society: Classic readings in social psychology (pp. 85–102). Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
  76. Seidel, P., & Hopkins, T. (2013). No one should be stopped by police just because they’re black. The Age. Retrieved from http://www.theage.com.au/comment/no-one-should-be-stopped-by-police-just-because-theyre-black-20130218-2end5.html#ixzz3sZIcyoAZ.
  77. Selasi, T., & TedGlobal. (2014, July 06). Don’t ask where I’m from, ask where I’m a local. TedGlobal. Retrieved from http://www.ted.com/talks/taiye_selasi_don_t_ask_where_i_m_from_ask_where_i_m_a_local.
  78. Shaw, A. (2013). A critical approach to marginalized audiences and representations. In E. de Gregorio Godeo, & Á. M.-A. Martín-Albo (Eds.), Mapping identity and identification processes: Approaches from cultural studies (pp. 133–148). Bern: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  79. Sinclair, S., Sidanius, J., & Levin, S. (1998). The interface between ethnic and social system attachment: The differential effects of hierarchy—enhancing and hierarchy—attenuating environments. Journal of Social Issues, 54(4), 741–757.Google Scholar
  80. Sohoni, D., & Mendez, J. B. (2014). Defining immigrant newcomers in new destinations: Symbolic boundaries in Williamsburg, Virginia. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 37(3), 496–516.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Solomos, J. (2014). An appreciation, Stuart Hall: Articulations of race, class and identity. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 37(10), 1667–1675.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Special Broadcast Service (Executive Producer). (2010, October 10). Africa to Australia [Television Broadcast]. Retrieved from http://www.sbs.com.au/africatoaustralia/#/all-stories.
  83. Tan, M. (2016, January 6). Is I’m a Celebrity’s Africa-themed show a bad case of cultural appropriation? The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/tv-and-radio/2016/jan/06/is-im-a-celebritys-africa-themed-show-a-bad-case-of-cultural-appropriation.
  84. Tormala, T. T., & Deaux, K. (2006). Black immigrants to the United States: Confronting and constructing ethnicity and race. In R. Mahalingam (Ed.), Cultural psychology of immigrants (pp. 131–150). New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  85. Van Dijk, T. A. (2000). New(s) racism: A discourse analytical approach. London: Open University Press.Google Scholar
  86. Van Dijk, T. A. (2015). Racism and the press. Cambridge: Routledge.Google Scholar
  87. Warriner, D. S. (2007). Language learning and the politics of belonging: Sudanese women refugees becoming and being “American”. Anthropology & Education Quarterly, 38(4), 343–359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Wiley, S., & Deaux, K. (2011). The bicultural identity performance of immigrants. In A. Azzi, E., X. Chryssochoou, B. Klandermans, & B. Simon (Eds.), Identity and participation in culturally diverse societies (pp. 49–68). Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
  89. Windle, J. (2008). The racialisation of African youth in Australia. Social Identities, 14(5), 553–566.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Living Cultural Studies and Flinders UniversityAdelaideAustralia

Personalised recommendations