Advertisement

Surveying the Demographic

  • Runyararo Sihle ChivauraEmail author
Chapter
  • 109 Downloads

Abstract

This chapter captures how the moments of identity and regulation in the Circuit of Culture (Du Gay et al., Doing cultural studies: The story of the Sony Walkman, 1997) function in the life of the African individual. I examine how an immigrant individual articulates through speech, how they consume discourses in Australian media about themselves and what do they draw from it. Specifically, I explore how the discourse of mediated representations operates in the negotiation of identity in their everyday lives. These are fundamental issues to address, it is through the use of carefully considered methods of approach that this study is intended to yield results that provide new insights, voices and views of how African immigrants go through these moments of the circuit. Probyn (CCCS selected working papers Vol. 1, pp. 425–432, 2007, p. 431) argues, the processes of production and consumption are best articulated in Hall (The cultural studies reader pp. 477–487, 1999) through his research on encoding and decoding. The theory of encoding and decoding pays particular attention in noting the role of the receiver of information in analysing the message and ultimately deriving meaningful content from it. It is how the individual appropriates this meaningful content from their consumption into their everyday life that I intend on capturing in this section. This study seeks to employ oral history to provide new and original knowledge into how the African interviewees perceive and articulate how they are represented in the media and socially. The objective of oral history is to collect the real experiences of groups that are usually not included in dominant texts. Reality is subjective, theoretical, political and variable. Oral history, seeks to capture the real experiences of the intended groups. In recording the undocumented experiences, the researcher has to take note of how the experience is constructed by taking particular note of what is said when and how.

Keywords

Oral history Interview Lived experience Interviewee Interviewer Data analysis Transcription Autobiographical 

References

  1. Ahmed, S., & Matthes, J. (2016). Media representation of Muslims and Islam from 2000 to 2015: A meta-analysis. International Communication Gazette.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1748048516656305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Altschull, J. H. (1994). Agents of power: The media and public policy. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
  3. Australian Associated Press, & Kwek, G. (2011, Mach 9). I’m not a racist, says Pauline Hanson. The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved from http://www.smh.com.au/nsw/state-election-2011/im-not-a-racist-says-pauline-hanson-20110308-1bn04.html.
  4. Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2008). CENSUS 2006—People born in Africa. Retrieved from Canberra: http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/Lookup/3416.0Main+Features32008#Top.
  5. Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2014). 8146.0—Household use of information technology, Australia, 2012–13. Retrieved from http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/Lookup/8A12E6E0D07D36A0CA257C89000E3FB7?opendocument.
  6. Baak, M. (2011). Murder, community talk and belonging: An exploration of Sudanese community responses to murder in Australia. African Identities, 9(4), 417–434.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bolt, A. (2016, March 13). Our safety betrayed by ugly cover-up over refugee program. Herald Sun. Retrieved from http://www.heraldsun.com.au/news/opinion/andrew-bolt/our-safety-betrayed-by-ugly-coverup-over-refugee-program/news-story/3827c3bb3391880c042811789618e92e.
  8. Brabazon. T., & Chivaura, R. (2016, January 22). Why the authentic voice matters. Tara Brabazon Podcast. Podcast retrieved from http://hwcdn.libsyn.com/p/9/d/5/9d5024441dbe717a/Sunny_Rue_Chivaura_7_Why_the_authentic_voice_matters.mp3?c_id=10714527&expiration=1485489470&hwt=e723b8ed80a95d5a6620805a60249c6f.
  9. Brabazon, T., Redhead, S., & Chivaura, R. (2015, October 30). Finding a voice. Tara Brabazon Podcast. Podcast retrieved from http://tarabrabazon.libsyn.com/size/5/?search=finding+a+voice.
  10. Brabazon, T., Redhead, S., & Chivaura, R. (2016, September 30). Althusser, the tea towel and identity. Tara Brabazon Podcast. Podcast retrieved from http://hwcdn.libsyn.com/p/2/8/2/282fd0bf2d8f8bdf/Sunny_Rue_Chivaura_15_Althusser_the_tea_towel_and_identity.mp3?c_id=12330727&expiration=1470189075&hwt=f236eeeaa9cb1049689c3737e512245d.
  11. Cohen, S. (2011). Whose side were we on? The undeclared politics of moral panic theory. Crime, Media, Culture, 7(3), 237–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cook, H., Dow, A., & Jacks, T. (2016, March 15). Community advocates tried to alert officials: City Rampage—’Racist’ label for raising concerns about teens. The Age. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1775391800?accountid=10910.
  13. Cottle, S. (2000). Ethnic minorities & the media: Changing cultural boundaries. New York: McGraw-Hill International.Google Scholar
  14. Davies, R. B. (1987). The limitations of cross sectional analysis. In R. Crouchley (Ed.), Longitudinal data analysis: Surrey conferences on sociological theory and method 4 (Vol. 4, pp. 1–16). Aldershot: Gower Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  15. Deaux, K., & Wiley, S. (2007). Moving people and shifting representations: Making immigrant identities. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Denzin, N. K., & Lincoln, Y. S. (2013). Strategies of qualitative inquiry (Vol. 4). London: Sage.Google Scholar
  17. Du Gay, P., Hall, S., Janes, L., & Mackay, H. (1997). Doing cultural studies: The story of the Sony Walkman. London: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  18. Due, C. (2008). Who are strangers’? ‘Absorbing’ Sudanese refugees into a white Australia. Australian Critical Race and Whiteness Studies Association Journal, 4(1), 1–13.Google Scholar
  19. Fink, A. (2003). The survey handbook. London: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Foddy, W. (1993). Constructiing questions for interviews and questionnaires: Theory and practice in social research. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gale, P. (2004). The refugee crisis and fear: Populist politics and media discourse. Journal of Sociology, 40(4), 321–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gatt, K. (2011). Sudanese refugees in Victoria: An analysis of their treatment by the Australian Government. International Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice, 35(3), 207–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gramsci, A. (1971). Selections from the prison notebooks of Antonio Gramsci (Q. Hoare & G. Nowell-Smith, Trans.). New York: International Publishers.Google Scholar
  24. Groves, R. M., Fowler, F. J., Couper, M. P., Lepkowski, J. M., Singer, E., & Tourangeau, R. (2011). Survey methodology (2nd ed.). New Jersey: Wiley.Google Scholar
  25. Hage, G. (2008). Analysing multiculturalism today. In T. Bennett & J. Frow (Eds.), The SAGE handbook of cultural analysis (pp. 488–509). London: SAGE.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hall, S. (1997). Representation: Cultural representations and signifying practices (Vol. 2). London: Sage.Google Scholar
  27. Hall, S. (1999). Encoding, Decoding. In S. During (Ed.), The cultural studies reader (3rd ed., pp. 477–487). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  28. Hall, S. (2013). Cultural studies and its theoretical legacies. In L. Grossberg, C. Nelson, & P. Treichler (Eds.), Cultural studies (pp. 277–294). Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  29. Hatoss, A., & Huijser, H. (2010). Gendered barriers to educational opportunities: Resettlement of Sudanese refugees in Australia. Gender and Education, 22(2), 147–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hatoss, A., & Sheely, T. (2008). Language maintenance and identity among Sudanese-Australian refugee-background youth. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 30(2), 127–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Herbert, J., May, J., Wills, J., Datta, K., Evans, Y., & McIlwaine, C. (2008). Multicultural living? Experiences of everyday racism among Ghanaian migrants in London. European Urban and Regional Studies, 15(2), 103–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hopkins, N., Reicher, S., & Levine, M. (1997). On the parallels between social cognition and the ‘new racism’. British Journal of Social Psychology, 36(3), 305–329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hsieh, H.-F., & Shannon, S. E. (2005). Three approaches to qualitative content analysis. Qualitative Health Research, 15(9), 1277–1288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hugo, G. (2009, December). Migration between Africa and Australia: A demographic perspective. Paper for Australian Human Rights Commission. Retrieved from https://www.humanrights.gov.au/publications/african-australians-project-migration-between-africa-and-australia-demographic.
  35. Jansen, H. (2010). The logic of qualitative survey research and its position in the field of social research methods. Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung/Forum: Qualitative Social Research, 11(2), 1–21.Google Scholar
  36. KhosraviNik, M. (2009). The representation of refugees, asylum seekers and immigrants in British newspapers during the Balkan conflict (1999) and the British general election (2005). Discourse & Society, 20(4), 477–498.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Lumley, R., McLennan, G., & Hall, S. (1977). Politics and Ideology: Gramsci. Working Papers in Cultural Studies, 10, 45–76.Google Scholar
  38. Mendoza, G. P. (Producer). (2015, March 15). Light-skinned indigenous people face discrimination: Michelle Lovegrove. Retrieved from http://www.cbc.ca/news/aboriginal/light-skinned-indigenous-people-face-discrimination-michelle-lovegrove-1.2989480.
  39. Mercer, P. (2010, July 6). African migrants to Australia caught in a spiral of bigotry. The National. Retrieved from http://www.thenational.ae/news/world/asia-pacific/african-migrants-to-australia-caught-in-a-spiral-of-bigotry.
  40. Nolan, D., Farquharson, K., Politoff, V., & Marjoribanks, T. (2011). Mediated multiculturalism: Newspaper representations of Sudanese Migrants in Australia. Journal of Intercultural Studies, 32(6), 655–671.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Nolan, D., Burgin, A., Farquharson, K., & Marjoribanks, T. (2016). Media and the politics of belonging: Sudanese Australian, letters to the editor and the new integrationism. Patterns of Prejudice, 50(3), 253–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Nunn, C. (2010). Spaces to speak: Challenging representations of Sudanese-Australians. Journal of Intercultural Studies, 31(2), 183–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. O’Doherty, K., & Lecouteur, A. (2007). “Asylum seekers”, “boat people” and “illegal immigrants”: Social categorisation in the media*. Australian Journal of Psychology, 59(1), 1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Orbe, M. P., & Harris, T. M. (2008). Interracial communication: Theory into practice. London: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  45. Osgerby, B. (2003). A pedigree of the consuming male: Masculinity, consumption and the American ‘leisure class’. Sociological Review, 51(1), 57–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Payne, G., & Payne, J. (2004). Key concepts in social research. London: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Probyn, E. (2007). The politics of experience. In A. Gray, J. Campbell, M. Erickson, S. Hanson, & H. Wood (Eds.), CCCS selected working papers (Vol. 1, pp. 425–432). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  48. Rasinger, S. M. (2010). ‘Lithuanian migrants send crime rocketing’: Representation of ‘new’ migrants in regional print media. Media, Culture and Society, 32(6), 1021–1030.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Rossi, P. H., Wright, J. D., & Anderson, A. B. (2013). Handbook of survey research. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  50. Saptefrati, S. (2008). The first step towards interlectual dialouge: Acknowledging the ‘Other’. (Non)-Stereotypical representation of migrants versus ethnic minorities before and after the 2007 European Union enlargement. Eurolimes, 6, 76–92.Google Scholar
  51. Sarantakos, S. (2013). Social research (4th ed.). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Shaw, A. (2013). A critical approach to marginalized audiences and representations. In E. de Gregorio Godeo & Á. M.-A. Martín-Albo (Eds.), Mapping identity and identification processes: Approaches from cultural studies (pp. 133–148). Bern: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  53. Song, M. (2003). Choosing ethnic identity. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  54. Special Broadcasting Service. (2014). Cronulla riots: The day that shocked the nation [Television broadcast]. Retrieved from http://www.sbs.com.au/cronullariots/documentary#chapters/introduction.
  55. Special Broadcast Service (Executive Producer). (2010, October 10). Africa to Australia [Television Broadcast]. Retrieved from http://www.sbs.com.au/africatoaustralia/#/all-stories.
  56. Staples, R. (2011). White power, black crime, and racial politics. The Black Scholar, 41(4), 31–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Trebbe, J., & Schoenhagen, P. (2011). Ethnic minorities in the mass media: How migrants perceive their representation in Swiss Public Television. Journal of International Migration and Integration, 12(4), 411–428.Google Scholar
  58. Van Dijk, T. A. (2015). Racism and the press. Cambridge: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Warriner, D. S. (2007). Language learning and the politics of belonging: Sudanese women refugees becoming and being “American”. Anthropology & Education Quarterly, 38(4), 343–359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Williams, T. K. (2015). Race-ing and being raced: The critical interrogation of ‘passing’. In J. Ifekwunigwe (Ed.), ‘Mixed race’ studies: A reader (pp. 166–170). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  61. Wilson, C. C., & Gutierrez, F. (1985). Minorities and media: Diversity and the end of mass communication. Beverly Hills: Sage.Google Scholar
  62. Windle, J. (2008). The racialisation of African youth in Australia. Social Identities, 14(5), 553–556.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Living Cultural Studies and Flinders UniversityAdelaideAustralia

Personalised recommendations