Growth Factors (Third Generation Wound Healing Agents) and Hormones

  • Vibhakar Vachhrajani
  • Payal Khakhkhar


In neuropathic non infected wounds, growth factors give good results. PDGF and EGF are only two growth factors available in the market. They should be used with proper wound care practices with wound bed preparation, offloading and immobilization. Male and female sex hormones also play a role in healing process.


  1. 1.
    Jude EB, Blakytny R, Bulmer J, et al. Transforming growth factor-beta 1,2,3 and receptor type I and II in diabetic foot ulcers. Diabet Med. 2002;19:440–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lynch SE, Nixon JC. Role of platelet derived growth factor in wound healing: synergistic effects with growth factors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987;84:7696–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Robson M, Phillips L. Platelet derived growth factor BB for the treatment of chronic pressure ulcers. Lancet. 1992;339:23–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Mustoe T, Culter N. A phase II study to evaluate recombinant platelet derived growth factor BB in the treatment of stage 3 and 4 pressure ulcers. Arch Syrg. 1994;129:212–9.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Steed DL. Diabetic ulcer Study group: clinical evaluation of recombinant human platelet derived growth factor for the treatment of lower extremity diabetic foot ulcers. J Vasc Surg. 1995;21:71–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Steel DL. Clinical evaluation of recombinant human platelet derived growth factor for the treatment of lower extremity diabetic ulcers. Diabetic ulcer Study group. J Vasc Surg. 1995;21:71–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Weiman TJ, Smiel JM, Su Y. Efficacy and safety of a topical gel formulation of recombinant human platelet derived growth factor BB in patients with chronic neuropathic ulcers. A phase 3 randomized placebo controlled double blind study. Diabetes Care. 1998;21:822–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bhansali A, Venkatesh S, Duttta P, et al. Which is the better option: recombinant human PDGF-BB 0.01% gel or standard wound care, in diabetic neuropathic large planter ulcers off loaded by a customized contact cast? Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2009;83:e 13–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Veves A, et al. Chapter 20: Role of growth factors in the treatment of diabetic foot. In: The diabetic foot. 2nd ed. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press; 2006. p. 453–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sporn MB, Robert AB. Transforming growth factor. JAMA. 1989;262:938–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Knighton DR, Ciresi KF. Classifications and treatment of chronic non healing wounds. Ann Surg. 1986;104:322–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Atri SC, Misra J. Use of homologous platelet factors in achieving total healing of recalcitrant skin ulcers. Surgery. 1990;108:508–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kirsner RS, Michela M, Stasik L, et al. Advanced biological therapies for diabetic foot ulcers. Arch Dermatol. 2010;146(8):857–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kantor J, Margolis DJ. Treatment options for diabetic neuropathic foot ulcers: a cost effectiveness analysis. Dermatol Surg. 2001;27:347–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ashcroft GS, Green-Wild T, Horan MA, Wahl SM, Ferguson MW. Topical estrogen accelerates cutaneous wound healing in aged humans associated with an altered inflammatory response. Am J Pathol. 1999;155:1137–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ashcroft GS, Dodsworth J, van Boxtel E, et al. Estrogen accelerates cutaneous wound healing associated with an increase in TGF-β 1 levels. Nat Med. 1997;3:1209–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Taylor RJ, Taylor AD, Smyth JV. Using an artificial neural network to predict healing times and risk factors for venous leg ulcers. J Wound Care. 2002;11:101–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vibhakar Vachhrajani
    • 1
  • Payal Khakhkhar
    • 1
  1. 1.Diabetic foot and wound managementVijay Vachhrajani Memorial Hospital RajkotIndia

Personalised recommendations