Side Wind Effect on the Flow Behavior of the Window Plume

  • Junmei Li
  • Yuhang Zhao
  • W. K. ChowEmail author
  • T. K. Yue
Conference paper


Wind action on the flow behavior of the window plume along the exterior wall of a building was studied by analytical and numerical methods. Heat release rate of fire and outside wind speed were varied in the study. It was found that the window plume would flow downward under side wind. Fire might spread to the room above the window when the wind speed was low. With the wind speed increasing, the plume would be blown to downward direction, giving hazardous conditions to rooms at downstream of the wind. The tilted angle of the window plume was derived by theoretical analysis.


Side wind Window plume Fire 




Width of the window flame (m)


Speed (m/s)




Force (N)


Flame length (m)


Temperature (K)


Length of the window plume (m)

Greek Symbols


Angle (°)


Density (kg/m3)










This paper was supported by Beijing Natural Science Foundation—Beijing Academy of Science and Technology Joint Funded Project (Grant No. L140002).


  1. 1.
    Yokoi, S. (1960). Study on the prevention of fire-spread caused by hot upward current. Report of the Building Research Institute, Japan.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Oleszkiewicz, I. (1991). Vertical separation of windows using spandrel walls and horizontal projections. Fire Technology, 11, 334–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Oleszkiewicz, I. (1990). Fire and combustible cladding. Construct Canada, 32(4), 16-8, 20-1.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Yamaguchi, J., & Tanaka, T. (2004). Temperature profiles of window jet plume. In Fire Safety Science Digital Archive, 6th Asia-Oceania Symposium of fire Science and Technology.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Himoto, K., Tsuchihashi, T., Tanaka, Y., & Tanaka, Y. (2009). Modelling thermal behaviours of window flame ejected from a compartment. Fire Safety Journal, 44, 230–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Lee, Y. P., Delichatsios, M. A., & Ohmiya, Y. (2012). The physics of the outflow from the opening of an enclosure fire and re-examination of Yokoi’s correlation. Fire Safety Journal, 49, 82–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Tang, F. (2013). Study on the characteristics of fire plume behavior of building facade under different external boundary and pressure conditions. China University of Science and Technology (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Tang, F., Hu, L. H., Delichatsios, M. A., Lu, K. H., Zhu, W., et al. (2012). Experimental study on flame height and temperature profile of window spill thermal plume for compartment fires. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 52, 93–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Tang, F. (2013). A mathematical model on lateral temperature profile of buoyant window pill plume from a compartment fire. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 56, 447–453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sugawa, O., Momita, D., & Takahashi, W. (1997). Flow behaviour of ejected fire flame/plume from an opening effected by external side wind. In: Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Fire Safety Science, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 249–260.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Chow, C. L., Chow, W. K., Han, S. S., & So, A. K. W. (2007–2008). Vertical air temperature profiles in a single skin glass façade with a ‘jumping fire’ scenario. Journal of Applied Fire Science, 17(2), 107–130.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Miao, L., & Chow, C. L. (2018). A study on window plume from a room fire to the cavity of a double-skin façade. Applied Thermal Engineering, 129, 230–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    McGrattan, K., Hostikka, S., McDermott, R., Floyd, J., Weinschenk, C., & Overholt, K. (2013). Fire dynamics simulator (version 6.0) use’s guide. NIST Special Publication 1019. Maryland: National Institute of Standards and Technology.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Chow, W. K., & Fong, N. K. (1993). Application of field modelling technique to simulate interaction of sprinkler and fire-induced smoke layer. Combustion Science and Technology, 89, 101–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Chow, W. K. (1995). Use of computational fluid dynamics for simulating enclosure fires. Journal of Fire Sciences, 13(4), 300–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Chow, W. K. (1995). A comparison of the use of fire zone and field models for simulating atrium smoke-filling processes. Fire Safety Journal, 25(4), 337–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Chow, W. K. (1998). Numerical studies on recent large high-rise building fire. Journal of Architectural Engineering, 4(2), 65–74.MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Chow, W. K., Li, S. S., Gao, Y., & Chow, C. L. (2009). Numerical studies on atrium smoke movement and control with validation by field tests. Building and Environment, 44(6), 1150–1155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Chow, W. K., & Zou, G. W. (2009). Numerical simulation of pressure changes in closed chamber fires. Building and Environment, 44(6), 1261–1275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Chow, C. L., & Chow, W. K. (2009). Fire safety aspects of refuge floors in supertall buildings with computational fluid dynamics. Journal of Civil Engineering and Management, 15(3), 225–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Chow, W. K. (2003). Fire safety in green or sustainable buildings: Application of the fire engineering approach in Hong Kong. Architectural Science Review, 46(3), 297–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    The Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers. (2010). CIBSE guide E—Fire engineering. Dorchester, UK: The Dorset Press.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Chow, W. K. (2015). Performance-based approach to determining fire safety provisions for buildings in the Asia-Oceania regions. Building and Environment—Fifty Year Anniversary for Building and Environment, 91, 127–137.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Junmei Li
    • 1
    • 2
  • Yuhang Zhao
    • 1
    • 2
  • W. K. Chow
    • 3
    Email author
  • T. K. Yue
    • 3
  1. 1.Beijing Key Laboratory of Green Built Environment and Energy Efficient TechnologyBeijingChina
  2. 2.College of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Beijing University of TechnologyBeijingChina
  3. 3.Department of Building Services EngineeringResearch Centre for Fire Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic UniversityHong KongChina

Personalised recommendations