Experimental Studies of the Effect of Spray Dynamics on Radiation Blockage by Water Curtains

  • Haobo Wang
  • Libin Ding
  • Tian Xie
  • Jian WangEmail author
  • Chao DingEmail author
Conference paper


As a widely used protection device, the radiation blockage ability of water spray curtain to high temperature heat source is influenced by a number of elements, of which spray dynamics characteristic of nozzles is an important factor. An experimental study on radiation attenuation ability of water sprays has been carried out in laboratory. Droplets diameters and distributions of varied positions have been measured by laser particle sizer at different pressures. The position range varies from 25 to 175 cm and pressure changes from 1 to 3 bars. The attenuated radiation fluxes are measured by radiation heat flux meters to analyze the transmissivity of sprays. The results clearly indicate that the spray dynamic characteristic can severely affect the blockage ability of thermal radiation. The variation tendency of particle mean diameter can directly reflect the change trend of attenuation efficiency. Characteristic of droplets and relative positions of protected objects are two significant factors for affecting attenuation efficiency. These factors should be considered when water spray curtains are to be used in industrial and building fire protection. Furthermore, different nozzles with different characteristics, which should be measured firstly when they are used to discharge the water sprays.


Water curtains Droplet size Particle distribution Spray dynamics Radiation blockage 



This research was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51706218), State’s Key Project of Research and Development Plan (2018YFC0808600) and the Natural Science Foundation of Navy (No. 435517D25).


  1. 1.
    Ravigururajan, T. E., & Beltrav, M. P. (1989). A model for attenuation of fire radiation through water droplets. Fire Safety Journal, 15(2), 171–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Coppalle, A., Nedelka, D., & Bauer, B. (1993). Fire protection: water curtains. Fire Safety Journal, 20, 241–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Dembélé, S., Delmas, A., & Sacadura, J. F. (1997). A method for modeling the mitigation of hazardous fire thermal radiation by water spray curtains. Journal of Heat Transfer, 199(4), 746–753.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hostikka, S., & McGrattan, K. (2006). Numerical modeling of radiative heat transfer in water sprays. Fire Safety Journal, 41, 76–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ng, Candy M. Y., & Chow, W. K. (2004). Review on the design and scientific aspects for drencher systems in different countries. Architectural Science Review, 45, 323–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Buchlin, J. M. (2003). Water sprays as mitigation means. Invited paper in international workshop on multiphase and complex flow simulation for industry: Physical, mathematical, numerical models and softwares for safety and design improvements. Cargése, Corsica.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Collin, A., Boulet, P., Lacroix, D., & Jeandel, A. (2005). On radiative transfer in water curtains using the discrete ordinates method. Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy & Radiative Transfer, 92, 85–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lechêne, S., Acem, Z., Parent, G., Jeandel, G., & Boulet, P. (2011). Upward versus downward injection of droplets for the optimization of a radiative shield. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 54, 1689–1697.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Forsth, M., & Moller, K. (2013). Enhanced absorption of fire induced heat radiation in liquid droplets. Fire Safety Journal, 55, 182–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Parent, G., Boulet, P., Gauthier, S., Blaise, J., & Collin, A. (2006). Experimental investigation of radiation transmission through a water spray. Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy & Radiative Transfer, 97, 126–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Chow, W. K., & Elaine, Y. L. (2006). Experimental studies on thermal and smoke blockage by water curtains. In 9th AIAA/ASME Joint Thermophysics and Heat Transfer Conference, June 5–8, San Francisco, California.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Cheung, W. Y. (2009). Radiation blockage of water curtains. International Journal on Engineering Performance-Based Fire Codes, 1, 7–13.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Viskanta, R., & Tseng, C. C. (2007). Spectral radiation characteristics of water sprays. Combustion Theory and Modelling, 11, 113–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Yang, W., Perry, T., Ladouceur, H. D., & Kee, R. J. (2004). The interaction of thermal radiation and water mist in fire suppression. Fire Safety Journal, 39, 41–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Consalvi, J. L., Porterie, B., & Loraud, J. C. (2003). On the use of gray assumption for modeling thermal radiation through water sprays. Numerical Heat Transfer Part A, 44(5), 505–519.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Collin, A., Boulet, P., Parent, G., Vetrano, M. R., & Bouchlin, J. M. (2008). Dynamics and thermal behaviour sprays. International Journal of Thermal Science, 47, 399–407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Wikipedia. (2014). Spray nozzle.
  18. 18.
  19. 19.
    Boulet, P., Collin, A., & Parent, G. (2006). Heat transfer through a water spray curtain under the effect of a strong radiative source. Fire Safety Journal, 41(1), 15–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Li, Q. Y., & Wang, Y. Y. (2008). Infrared radiation characteristic of flame and detecting wave band. In CFPA Specialized Committee Electrical Fire Prevention Conference, Xiamen, China (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lechêne, S., Acem, Z., Parent, G., Jeandel, G., & Boulet, P. (2012). Radiative shielding by water mist: Comparisons between downward, upward and impacting injection of droplets. Eurotherm Conference No. 95: Computational Thermal Radiation in Participating Media IV. IOP Publishing Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 369(2012), 012027. Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Fire ScienceUniversity of Science and Technology of ChinaHefeiChina
  2. 2.No. 92493 Unit of PLAHuludaoChina

Personalised recommendations