Investigation of the Effect of DMMP Addition on the Methane–Air Premixed Flame Thickness

  • Wei Li
  • Yong JiangEmail author
  • Rujia Fan
Conference paper


Flame thickness is an important parameter in both laminar and turbulent flame studies. To provide some basic understanding of the effect of the fire inhibitor on the laminar flame thickness, numerical calculations of methane–air premixed flames doped by dimethyl methyl phosphonate (DMMP) were conducted. The results show that the flame speed depends highly on the reactions: \( {\text{HOPO}}_{2} + {\text{H}}_{2} = {\text{PO}}_{2} + {\text{H}}_{2} {\text{O}} \); \( {\text{PO}}_{2} + {\text{H}} + {\text{M}} = {\text{HOPO}} + {\text{M}} \); \( {\text{HOPO}} + {\text{OH}} = {\text{PO}}_{ 2} + {\text{H2O}} \); and \( {\text{HOPO}} + {\text{OH}} = {\text{PO}}_{ 2} + {\text{H}}_{ 2} {\text{O}} \) The laminar flame thickness increases with the increase of the DMMP addition. The preheat sub-zone in the flame front is more vulnerable to the inhibition effect of DMMP. Based on the opposed-flow flame calculations with different outlet velocities, the results indicate that the preheat sub-zone is more dependent on the local stretch rate than the reaction sub-zone. To figure out the reason why the flames become thicker after DMMP addition, the flames’ chemical structures are extracted and discussed. It is found that the chemical reactions in the flame zone are retarded and the upstream gas flow velocity is artificially reduced to make the flame surface stay in a certain area in the calculation. Accordingly, the residence time of the reactant mixture increases, and the CH2O and OH diffuse and distribute in a wide area. Therefore, the radical-based flame thickness increases with DMMP addition.


Fire inhibitor Flame thickness Flame structure DMMP 



This work was supported by the National Key R&D Program of China (No. 2016YFC0801505), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51576183), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China (No. WK2320000041), for which the authors would like to express their gratitude.


  1. 1.
    The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, in U. Nations (5th ed.), 1999.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Xu, W., Jiang, Y., Qiu, R., & Ren, X. (2017). Influence of Halon replacements on laminar flame speeds and extinction limits of hydrocarbon flames. Combustion and Flame, 182, 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ren, X., Jiang, Y., & Xu, W. (2016). Numerical investigation of the chemical and physical effects of halogenated fire suppressants addition on methane–air mixtures. Journal of Fire Sciences, 34, 416–430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Babushok, V. I., Linteris, G. T., Meier, O. C., & Pagliaro, J. L. (2014). Flame inhibition by CF3CHCl2(HCFC-123). Combustion Science and Technology, 186, 792–814.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Simpson, W. R., Glasow, R. V., Riedel, K., Anderson, P., & Ariya, P. (2007). Halogens and their role in polar boundary-layer ozone depletion. European Geosciences Union, 16, 4375–4418.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Solomon, S. (1999). Stratospheric ozone depletion: A review of concepts and history. Reviews of Geophysics, 37, 275–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Fontaine, G., Bourbigot, S., & Duquesne, S. (2008). Neutralized flame retardant phosphorus agent: Facile synthesis, reaction to fire in PP and synergy with zinc borate. Polymer Degradation and Stability, 93, 68–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bourbigot, S., & Duquesne, S. (2007). Fire retardant polymers: Recent developments and opportunities. Journal of Materials Chemistry, 17, 2283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Korobeinichev, O. P., Shvartsberg, V. M., Shmakov, A. G., Bolshova, T. A., Jayaweera, T. M., Melius, C. F., et al. (2005). Flame inhibition by phosphorus-containing compounds in lean and rich propane flames. Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, 30, 2353–2360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Jayaweera, T. M., Melius, C. F., Pitz, W. J., Westbrook, C. K., Korobeinichev, O. P., Shvartsberg, V. M., et al. (2005). Flame inhibition by phosphorus-containing compounds over a range of equivalence ratios. Combustion and Flame, 140, 103–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Macdonald, M. A., Jayaweera, T. M., Fisher, E. M., & Gouldin, F. C. (1999). Inhibition of nonpremixed flames by phosphorus-containing compounds. Combustion and Flame, 116, 166–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bouvet, N., Linteris, G. T., Babushok, V. I., Takahashi, F., Katta, V. R., & Krämer, R. (2016). A comparison of the gas-phase fire retardant action of DMMP and Br 2 in co-flow diffusion flame extinguishment. Combustion and Flame, 169, 340–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Pagliaro, J. L., Linteris, G. T., & Babushok, V. I. (2016). Premixed flame inhibition by C2HF3Cl2 and C2HF5. Combustion and Flame, 163, 54–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Borghi, R. (1988). Turbulent combustion modelling. Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, 14, 245–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Peters, N. (2000). Turbulent combustion. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Zeldovich, Y. B. (1944). The theory of combustion and detonation. Publ. Academy of Sciences.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Spalding, D. B. (1955). Some fundamentals of combustion, Butterworth Scientific.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Li, Z., Li, B., Sun, Z., Bai, X. S., & Aldén, M. (2010). Turbulence and combustion interaction: High resolution local flame front structure visualization using simultaneous single-shot PLIF imaging of CH, OH, and CH2O in a piloted premixed jet flame. Combustion and Flame, 157, 1087–1096.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Temme, J., Wabel, T. M., Skiba, A. W., Driscoll, J. F. (2015). Measurements of premixed turbulent combustion regimes of high reynolds number flames. In AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting.
  20. 20.
    Wu, Y., Modica, V., Rossow, B., & Grisch, F. (2016). Effects of pressure and preheating temperature on the laminar flame speed of methane/air and acetone/air mixtures. Fuel, 185, 577–588.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hu, E., Li, X., Meng, X., Chen, Y., Cheng, Y., Xie, Y., et al. (2015). Laminar flame speeds and ignition delay times of methane–air mixtures at elevated temperatures and pressures. Fuel, 158, 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Fan, C. L., & Wang, L. S. (2010). Vapor pressure of dimethyl phosphite and dimethyl methylphosphonate. Journal of Chemical and Engineering Data, 55, 479–481.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Babushok, V. I., Linteris, G. T., Katta, V. R., & Takahashi, F. (2016). Influence of hydrocarbon moiety of DMMP on flame propagation in lean mixtures. Combustion and Flame, 171, 168–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Luo, C., Dlugogorski, B. Z., & Kennedy, E. M. (2008). Influence of CF3I and CBr F3 on methanol-air and methane-air premixed flames. Fire Technology, 44, 221–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Babushok, V., & Tsang, W. (2000). Inhibitor rankings for alkane combustion. Combustion and Flame, 123, 488–506.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Bouvet, N., Linteris, G., Babushok, V., Takahashi, F., Katta, V., & Krämer, R. (2016). Experimental and numerical investigation of the gas-phase effectiveness of phosphorus compounds. Fire and Materials, 40, 683–696.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Fire ScienceUniversity of Science and Technology of ChinaHefeiChina

Personalised recommendations