Advertisement

Effective Strategies and Policies for Exporting Hong Kong’s Higher Education to Asian Markets: Lessons from Other Countries

  • Alan Chi Keung CheungEmail author
  • Timothy Wai Wa Yuen
  • Celeste Yuet Mui Yuen
  • Yin Cheong Cheng
Part of the Education in the Asia-Pacific Region: Issues, Concerns and Prospects book series (EDAP, volume 28)

Abstract

The main purpose of the present study was to explore effective strategies and policies for exporting Hong Kong’s higher education to Asian markets. It examined and compared the current strategies and policies that are currently employed by Australia, the United Kingdom, and Singapore. The data for this project was obtained primarily from documents and in-depth interviews. Documents included the latest government reports, policy addresses, and official statistics. The in-depth interviews were conducted in Hong Kong as well as in the four studied cities—Mumbai, New Delhi, Jakarta, and Kuala Lumpur. Interviewees included government officials, academics, higher education institutions’ representatives, consulate generals, and officials from policy bodies. It is clear from the findings of this present study that a set of favorable policies and strategies at the national level was behind the success of these competitors. Such policies are not confined to educational policies but extend to population and employment policies.

Keywords

Internationalization of education Education hub Higher education International education United Kingdom Australia Singapore Hong Kong Asian markets 

Notes

References

  1. Altbach, P., & Knight, J. (2007). The internationalization of higher education: Motivation and realities. Journal of Studies in International Education, 11(3/4), 290–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. American International Recruitment Council. (2015). UK Government. International education-global growth and prosperity: an accompanying analytical narrative. Retrieved January 20, 2015: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/340601/bis-13-1082-international-education-accompanying-analytical-narrative-revised.pdf
  3. Asian Development Bank Institute. (2012). Internationalization of tertiary education services in Singapore. Retrieved December 17, 2014: http://www.adbi.org/files/2012.10.12.wp388.internationalization.tertiary.educ.singapore.pdf
  4. Australian Awards. (2014). About the Australian awards. Retrieved December 14, 2014: http://australiaawards.gov.au/Pages/about.aspx
  5. Australian Education International. (2014). Research snapshots. Retrieved January 25, 2015: https://internationaleducation.gov.au/research/research-snapshots/pages/default.aspx
  6. Australian Government. (2014). Budget overview. Retrieved December 13, 2014: http://www.budget.gov.au/2013-14/content/fbo/html/06_appendix_a.htm
  7. Australian Government Department of Education and Training. (2013). Selected higher education statistics: 2013 Student data. Retrieved January 24, 2015: http://education.gov.au/selected-higher-education-statistics-2013-student-data
  8. Australian Government Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. (2014). Australia’s top 25 goods and services, 2013–2014. Retrieved December 8, 2014: http://dfat.gov.au/publications/tgs/index.html
  9. Australian Qualifications Framework. (2014). Recognition of international qualifications. Retrieved January 24, 2015: http://www.aqf.edu.au/news/using-the-aqf/faq/recognition-of-international-qualifications/
  10. Ayubi, R., & Al-Habaibeh, A. (2006). An investigation into international business collaboration in higher education organizations: A case study of international partnerships in four leading universities. International Journal of Educational Management, 20(5), 380–396.Google Scholar
  11. Beaver, C. (2009). The UK’s international education strategy. Retrieved June 5, 2009: http://www.iienetowrk.org/page/116258
  12. Becker, R., & Kolster, R. (2012). International student recruitment: policies and developments in selected countries. The Hague, The Netherlands: Netherlands organisation for international cooperation in higher education. Retrieved January 22, 2015: http://www.nuffic.nl/en/library/international-student-recruitment.pdf
  13. Bein, M., Noel, R., & Ragot, L. (2014). Determinants of the international mobility of students. Economics of Education Review, 41, 40–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bowman, N. A., & Bastedo, M. N. (2009). Getting on the front page: organizational reputation, status signals, and the impact of U.S. News and World Report on student decisions. Research in Higher Education, 50, 415–436.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. British Council. (n.d.). Working and studying in the UK. Retrieved September 7, 2014, from http://www.britishcouncil.org/hongkong-educationuk-working-in-the-uk
  16. British Council. (2014a). Internationalizing higher education. Retrieved January 24, 2015: http://www.britishcouncil.pk/programmes/education/higher-education
  17. British Council. (2014b). Our global connection. Retrieved December 17, 2014: http://www.britishcouncil.org/
  18. British Council. (2014c). Study in the UK. Retrieved January 25, 2015 from: http://www.britishcouncil.hk/en/study-uk/events-seminars
  19. British Council. (2014d). Work visas for graduates. Retrieved December 17, 2014: http://www.educationuk.org/global/articles/work-visas
  20. Cai, Y., Holtta, S., & Kivisto, J. (2012). Finnish higher education institutions as exporters of education – Are they ready? In S. Ahola & D. M. Hoffman (Eds.), Higher education in research in Finland: Emerging structures and contemporary issues (pp. 215–234). Jyvaskyla, Finland: University of Jyvaskyla.Google Scholar
  21. Carrington, R., Meek, V. L., & Wood, F. Q. (2007). The role of further government intervention in Australian international education. Higher Education, 53, 561–577.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cheng, Y. C., Ng, S. W., Cheung, A., Choi, P. L., Tang, Y. F., Yuen, W. Y., et al. (2009). A technical research report on the development of Hong Kong as a regional education hub. Hong Kong: Hong Kong Institute of Education.Google Scholar
  23. Cheung, A., Yuen, W. W., & Yuen, Y. M. (2008). Exporting Hong Kong’s higher education in Asian markets: Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. International Journal of Educational Reform, 17, 308–326.Google Scholar
  24. Cheung, A., Yuen, W. W., Yuen, Y. M., & Cheng, Y. C. (2011). Strategies and policies for Hong Kong’s higher education in Asian Markets: Lessons from the United Kingdom, Australia, and Singapore. International Journal of Educational Management, 25(2), 144–163.Google Scholar
  25. Choudaha, R., & Chang, L. (2012). Trends in international student mobility. New York: World Education Services. Retrieved January 2, 2015. http://www.wes.org/ras/TrendsInInternationalStudentMobility.pdf
  26. Cross, M., Ehpraim, M., & Ojo, E. (2011). Emerging concept of internationalization in South African Higher Education: Conversations on local and global exposure at the University of the Witwatersrand. Journal of Studies in International Education, 15(1), 75–92.Google Scholar
  27. Donn, G., & Al Manthri, Y. (2010). Globalisation and higher education in the Arab Gulf States. Oxford: Symposium Books.Google Scholar
  28. Duhamel, D. (2004, October). Continued education: Can Singapore become the Boston of Asia. Singapore Business Review, pp. 39–40Google Scholar
  29. Economic Development Board. (2003). Singapore set to become global schoolhouse. Singapore: Economic Development Board.Google Scholar
  30. Education Singapore. (n.d.). Retrieved September 8, 2009: http://www.singaporeedu.gov.sg/htm/abo/abo01.htm
  31. Edwards, S., & Browne, M. (1991). Destination Australia. Carlton South, VIC: Bureau of Immigration Research.Google Scholar
  32. EU-ASIA Education Platform. (2014). Developing Asian education hubs. Retrieved December 17, 2014: http://www.eahep.org/asiahigher-education/background/127-developing-asian-education-hubs.html
  33. Gibbs, P., & Knapp, M. (2002). Marketing higher and further education. London: Kogan Page.Google Scholar
  34. Harman, G. (2004). New directions in internationalizing higher education: Australia’s development as an exporter of higher education services. Higher Education Policy, 17(1), 101–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Harris, D. R., & Rhall, T. M. (1993). The survey of international students. Canberra, Australia: Department of Employment, Education and Training.Google Scholar
  36. Hayton, J. T. W. (2009). Engaging the world: A look at Australia’s international education policies. Retrieved from http://www.iienetwork.org/page/116253
  37. Hemsley-Brown, J. (2012). ‘The best education in the world’: Reality, repetition or cliche? International students’ reasons for choosing an English university. Studies in Higher Education, 37(8), 1005–1022.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hemsley-Brown, J., & Oplatka, I. (2006). Universities in a competitive global marketplace: A systematic review of the literature on higher education marketing. International Journal of Public Sector Management, 19(4), 316–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hong Kong Immigration Department. (n.d.). Immigration policy on study. Retrieved January 20, 2015: http://www.immd.gov.hk/en/faq/imm-policy-study.html
  40. ICEF. (2014). Malaysia continues to build its position as a regional education hub. Retrieved December 8, 2014: http://monitor.icef.com/2014/06/malaysia-continues-to-build-its-position-as-a-regional-education-hub/
  41. Japan Student Services Organization. (2014). Result of an annual survey of international students in Japan 2013. Retrieved Feb 11, 2015: http://www.jasso.go.jp/statistics/intl_student/documents/data13_e.pdf
  42. Kau, A. K. (2005, December 7). Developing Singapore as an education hub in Asia: Opportunities and challenges. From Department of Marketing and IB, Lingnan University: http://www.In.edu.hk/mkt/Seminar7Dec05.pdf
  43. Kehm, B. M., & Teichler, U. (2007). Research on internationalization in higher education. Journal of Studies in International Education, 11(3–4), 260–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Knight, J. (2006). Internationalization of higher education: New directions, new challenges. The 2005 IAU global survey report. Paris: International Association of Universities.Google Scholar
  45. Knight, J. (Ed.). (2014). International education hub: student, talent, knowledge-innovation models (pp. 81–99). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.Google Scholar
  46. Knight, J., & De Wit, H. (Eds.). (1997). Internationalization of higher education in Asia Pacific countries. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: European Association for International Education.Google Scholar
  47. Lee, M. (2008). University restructuring in Singapore: Amazing or a maze? Policy Futures in Education, 6(5), 569–588.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Marginson, S. (2006). Dynamics of national and global competition in higher education. Higher Education, 52, 1–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Marginson, S. (2007). Global position and position taking: The case of Australia. Journal of Studies in International Education, 11(1), 5–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Mazzarol, T. W. (1998). Critical success factors for international education marketing. International Journal of Educational Management, 12(4), 163–175.Google Scholar
  51. Mazzarol, T. W., & Soutar, G. (2002). “Push-pull” factors influencing international student destination choice. International Journal of Educational Management, 16(2), 82–90.Google Scholar
  52. Mazzarol, T. W., Soutar, G., Smart, N., & Choo, D. (2001). Perceptions, information and choice: Understanding how Chinese students select a country for overseas study. Commonwealth of Australia: Australian Education International, Department of Education, Training and Youth Affairs.Google Scholar
  53. Ministry of Education Singapore. (2008). Expansion and diversification. Retrieved April 3, 2008: http://www.moe.gov.sg/media/press/2008/03/expansion-and-diversification.php
  54. Mok, K. H. (2003). Decentralization and marketization of education in Singapore: A case study of the school excellence model. Journal of Educational Administration, 41(4/5), 348–365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Mok, K. H. (2008). Positioning as regional hub of higher education: Changing governance and regulatory reforms in Singapore and Malaysia. International Journal of Educational Reform, 17(3), 230–250.Google Scholar
  56. Mok, K. H., & Bodycott, P. (2014). Hong Kong: The quest for regional education hub status. In J. Knight (Ed.), International education hub: student, talent, knowledge-innovation models (pp. 81–99). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Mullins, G., Quintrell, N., & Hancock, L. (1995). The experiences of international and local students at three Australian Universities. Higher Education Research and Development, 14(2), 201–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Obst, D. (2008). National policies for international education. Retrieved November 8, 2008: http://www.iienetwork.org/page/116248
  59. OECD. (2004). Quality and recognition in higher education. Paris: OECD.Google Scholar
  60. Olds, K. (2007). Global assemblage: Singapore, foreign universities, and the construction of a “Global education hub.”. World Development, 35(6), 959–975.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Overseas Singaporean Unit. (2014). OS communities. Retrieved December 17, 2014: https://www.overseassingaporean.sg/staying-abroad/os-communities-i#Africa
  62. Pimpa, N. (2003). The influence of peers and student recruitment agencies on Thai students’ choices of international education. Journal of Studies in International Education, 7(2), 178–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Scott, P. (2005). Opportunities and threats of globalization. In G. Jones, P. McCarney, & M. Skolnik (Eds.), Creating knowledge, strengthening nations: The changing role of higher education (pp. 42–55). Toronto: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
  64. Sidhu, R. (2006). Universities and globalization. Mahwah, NJ: L. Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  65. Sidhu, R., Ho, K. C., & Yeoh, B. (2011). Emerging education hubs: The case of Singapore. Higher Education, 61, 23–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Sidhu, R., Ho, K. C., & Yeoh, B. (2014). Singapore: Building a knowledge and education hub. In J. Knight (Ed.), International education hub: Student, talent, knowledge-innovation models (pp. 121–143). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Singapore Budget. (2014). Expenditure overview. Retrieved December 13, 2014: http://www.singaporebudget.gov.sg/data/budget_2014/download/27%20MOE%202014.pdf
  68. Singapore Education. (n.d.). World/employment. Retrieved October 2, 2009: http://www.singaporeedu.gov.sg/htm/liv/liv06.htm
  69. Singapore FIS Education Centre. (2007). Population policy and Immigration in Singapore. Retrieved November 8, 2007: http://singapore-fis.com/admin/news_view.asp?newsid=477
  70. Singapore Ministry of Education. (2012). Foreign students in local autonomous universities. Retrieved December 17, 2014: http://www.moe.gov.sg/media/parliamentary-replies/2012/10/foreign-students-in-local-auto.php
  71. Singapore Tourism Board. (2007). Expanded Singapore education awards categories to boost Singapore’s global schoolhouse initiatives. Retrieved October 25, 2007: http://app.stb.com.sg/asp/new/new03a.asp?id=7743
  72. Singapore Tourism Board. (2014a). Singapore retains spots as world’s top international meetings country and city. Retrieved January 25, 2015: https://www.stb.gov.sg/news-and-publications/lists/newsroom/dispform.aspx?ID=515
  73. Singapore Tourism Board. (2014b). The speech of Singapore Education Awards 2009. Retrieved December 17, 2014: https://www.stb.gov.sg/news-and-publications/lists/newsroom/dispform.aspx?ID=483
  74. Smart, D., & Ang, G. (1992). Medium term market opportunities for Australian higher education. Murdoch, Western Australia: Asia Research Centre, Murdoch University.Google Scholar
  75. Stier, J. (2004). Taking a critical stance toward internationalization ideologies in higher education: Idealism, instrumentalism and educationalism. Globalisation, Societies and Education, 2(1), 83–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Study in Australia. (2014a). After graduation. Retrieved December 17, 2014: http://www.studyinaustralia.gov.au/global/after-graduation
  77. Study in Australia. (2014b). Work while you study. Retrieved December 17, 2014: http://www.studyinaustralia.gov.au/global/live-in-australia/working
  78. Task Force on Economic Challenges. (n.d.). Six economic areas identified by Task force on economic challenges for further development. Retrieved April 29, 2009: http://www.fso.gov.hk/tfec/eng/press.html
  79. The Hong Kong Government. (2007). Report on economic summit on “China’s 11th Five-Year Plan and the Development of Hong Kong”. Retrieved September 22, 2009: http://www.info.gov.hk/info/econ_summit/eng/pdf/tb_aa.pdf
  80. The United Kingdom Council for International Student Affairs. (2014). International student statistics: UK higher education. Retrieved December 8, 2014: http://www.ukcisa.org.uk/Info-for-universities-colleges--schools/Policy-research--statistics/Research--statistics/International-students-in-UK-HE/#International-(non-UK)-students-in-UK-HE-in-2012-13
  81. The United Kingdom Government, Department for Business, Innovation and Skills. (2013). International education – Global growth and prosperity: An accompanying analytical narrative. Retrieved December 8, 2014: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/340601/bis-13-1082-international-education-accompanying-analytical-narrative-revised.pdf
  82. The United States Department of Commerce (USDOS). (2014). Education team newsletter – Summer 2014. Retrieved December 8, 2014: http://www.export.gov/industry/education/eg_main_075833.asp
  83. UK Education Spending 1692–2016. (2014). Retrieved December 13, 2014: http://www.ukpublicspending.co.uk/uk_education_spending_20.html
  84. University Grant Committee. (2013). UGC annual report 2012–2013. Retrieved December 17, 2014: http://www.ugc.edu.hk/eng/ugc/publication/report/AnnualRpt_2012-13.htm
  85. University Grant Committee. (2014). Non-local student enrolment (Headcount) of UGC-funded programmes by institution, level of study, Broad Academic Programme Category and Mode of Study. Retrieved December 13, 2014: http://cdcf.ugc.edu.hk/cdcf/statEntry.do?language=EN
  86. World Bank. (2014). Research and development expenditure of GDP. Retrieved December 13, 2014: http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/GB.XPD.RSDV.GD.ZS
  87. Yang, R. (2002). University internationalization: Its meanings, rationales and implications. Intercultural Education, 13(1), 81–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Yonezawa, A. (2007). Strategies for the emerging global higher education market in East Asia: A comparative study of Singapore, Malaysia and Japan. Globalisation, Societies and Education, 5(1), 125–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Singapore 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alan Chi Keung Cheung
    • 1
    Email author
  • Timothy Wai Wa Yuen
    • 2
  • Celeste Yuet Mui Yuen
    • 2
  • Yin Cheong Cheng
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Educational Administration and PolicyThe Chinese University of Hong KongShatinHong Kong SAR
  2. 2.Department of Education Policy and LeadershipThe Hong Kong Institute of EducationTai PoHong Kong SAR

Personalised recommendations