Advertisement

Introduction

  • Shihkuan HsuEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Education in the Asia-Pacific Region: Issues, Concerns and Prospects book series (EDAP, volume 26)

Abstract

Education in Chinese culture is a process of cultivation. In education, cultivation is a cultural practice largely based on Confucian values. As a result of this practice, countries or regions with Chinese heritage, mostly in East Asia, have performed well in international educational assessments. International comparative education studies have found that students from these countries spend long hours in school, and they face intensive entrance examinations for senior high schools and universities. These characteristics may be traced back to beliefs in education and the orientation of Chinese culture. Research has documented the phenomena and the cultural foundations for these characteristics. There is more to be learned, however, about how Chinese culture has been influenced by ancient philosophies and how philosophical assumptions interact with people and social structures. Understanding cultural dynamics helps educators explain the roots in the past, the form of schooling in the present, and the ways education can be changed to improve it in the future. Therefore, this book elaborates on the goals and processes of education with accounts from different levels and branches of education. The concept of cultivation will be characterized in three ways. The first aspect of cultivation focuses on the whole person. The Chinese view education as cultivation of the whole person including knowledge and skill as well as morals and virtues. The second aspect of cultivation focuses on growth and development throughout life. Chinese view education as cultivating throughout a persons’ life, from the beginning to the end of life, with schooling as a part of the process. The third aspect of cultivation focuses on social structures. Chinese have many social structures that support and reinforce traditional values, such as political forces, examination systems, and social ladders. Analysis of these three aspects of cultivation, accompanied by case studies of schools, mostly in Taiwan, will provide a broader perspective on Chinese education. It will illuminate methods through which Chinese traditions can be preserved, revised, or transformed during the challenges of globalization.

Keywords

Chinese education Chinese learner Cultivation Taiwan Traditional values Globalization 

References

  1. Chan, C. K. K., & Rao, N. (Eds.). (2009). Revisiting the Chinese learner: Changing contexts, changing education. Hong Kong/Dordrecht, The Netherlands: The Comparative Education Research Centre, University of Hong Kong/Springer.Google Scholar
  2. Chou, C. P., & Ching, G. (2012). Taiwan education at the crossroad: When globalization meets localization. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chua, A. (2011). Battle hymn of the tiger mother. New York: Penguin Press.Google Scholar
  4. Cortazzi, M., & Lixian, J. (2001). Large classes in China: “Good” teachers and interaction. In D. A. Watkins & J. B. Biggs (Eds.), Teaching the Chinese learner: Psychological and pedagogical perspectives (pp. 115–134). Hong Kong: Comparative Education Research Center, University of Hong Kong.Google Scholar
  5. Eisner, E. W. (1979). The educational imagination: On the design and evaluation of school programs. Columbus, OH: Merrill Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  6. Gao, M. S. (2005). 東亞教育史研究: 回顧與展望 [Research on East-Asian education: A review and prospect]. Taipei, Taiwan: National Taiwan University Press.Google Scholar
  7. Hermans, H. J. M., & Hermans-Konopka, A. (2010). Dialogical self theory: Positioning and counter-positioning in a globalizing society. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ho, I. T. (2001). Are Chinese teachers authoritarian? In D. A. Watkins & J. B. Biggs (Eds.), Teaching the Chinese learner: Psychological and pedagogical perspectives (pp. 99–114). Hong Kong: Comparative Education Research Center, The University of Hong Kong.Google Scholar
  9. Hu, M. C. (1995). 中國教育史 (4th ed.) [The history of education in China]. Taipei, Taiwan: San-Min.Google Scholar
  10. Huang, K. G. (1988). 儒家思想與東亞現代化 [Confucian thoughts and East-Asian modernization]. Taipei, Taiwan: Chuliu.Google Scholar
  11. LeVine, R. A., Dixon, S., LeVine, S. E., Richman, A., Keefer, C., & Liederman, H. (2008). The comparative study of parenting. In R. A. LeVine & R. S. New (Eds.), Anthropology and child development: A cross-cultural reader (pp. 55–65). Cambridge, MA: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  12. Li, J. (2012). Cultural foundations of learning: East and West. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Miller, P. J., Wang, S.-H., Sandel, T., & Cho, G. E. (2002). Self-esteem as folk theory: A comparison of European-American and Taiwanese mothers’ beliefs. Parenting: Science and Practice, 3, 209–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Qian, M. (1995). 國史新論:中國教育制度與教育思想 [New inquiries on the history of China: Education system and philosophies]. Taipei, Taiwan: Linking.Google Scholar
  15. Schneider, B., Hieshima, J. A., Lee, S., & Plank, S. (1994). East-Asian academic success in the United States: Family, school, and cultural explanations. In P. M. Greenfield & R. R. Cocking (Eds.), Cross-cultural roots of minority child development (pp. 332–350). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  16. Stevenson, H. W., & Stigler, J. W. (1992). The learning gap: Why our schools are failing and what we can learn from Japanese and Chinese education. New York: Simon & Schuster.Google Scholar
  17. Watkins, D. A., & Biggs, J. B. (2001). Teaching and Chinese learner: Psychological and pedagogical perspectives. Hong Kong: Comparative Education Research Center, The University of Hong Kong.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Singapore 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center for Teacher EducationNational Taiwan UniversityTaipeiTaiwan

Personalised recommendations