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Japan’s Governmental Assistance in TVET for Industrial Human Resource Development: Changing Patterns of JICA’s Project-Based Cooperation

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Japan’s International Cooperation in Education

Abstract

This chapter focuses on the Government of Japan’s Official Development Assistance (ODA) to Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) in developing countries. We focus specifically on the assistance provided by the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), as the organization mainly responsible for technical cooperation for TVET. We analyze the changing patterns of JICA’s technical cooperation for TVET in relation to the domestic and global policy contexts that have influenced it. Underlying Japan’s international cooperation is its endogenous philosophy of human resource development (hitozukuri), which seeks to foster human resources for social and economic development. Japanese TVET assistance has been formed by the interactions between the philosophy of hitozukuri, a concept unique to Japan, the development needs of Japanese overseas factories, and international trends of ODA. Before 1990, Japanese TVET assistance had been largely conditioned by Japan’s social and economic situation and the philosophy of hitozukuri, as well as Japan’s relationship with recipient countries. However, after 1990, when development goals started to be shared worldwide, international trends became more influential. Analysis of JICA’s performance data shows that TVET assistance has been implemented in response to socioeconomic circumstances and policy factors in Japan as well as international trends, which have changed over time. However, there are many influencing factors that cannot be generalized upon as they are unique to each target country and project, reflecting the tendency in Japan’s ODA to respond to the actual needs of target countries.

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Notes

  1. 1.

    At that time, the World Bank claimed that the urgent demands of education policy were (1) TVET and (2) secondary education (World Bank, 1963). Between 1964 and 1969, TVET at the secondary education level was the second largest sector, accounting for 20% of the World Bank’s educational loans (World Bank 1995).

  2. 2.

    The number of trainees accepted through the governmental channel from 1954 to 1960 was 2,732, of which 1,037 (about 38%) were in the agriculture, forestry, and fisheries industry, the highest share (Ministry of International Trade and Industry [MITI], 1961, p. 275).

  3. 3.

    According to Overseas Technical Cooperation Agency [OTCA] (1972), “as a part of the technical cooperation, programs [sic] overseas technical cooperation centers are established in developing countries with the purpose of contributing to exploitation of manpower, development of science and technology, the improvement of productivity, and so forth, all of which are required for socio-economic development in these countries” (p. 41).

  4. 4.

    On its website, JICA (n.d.) states that “technical cooperation is an all-embracing term used to describe JICA’s practical assistance to developing countries. Depending on the specific project, technical assistance can include the dispatch of JICA experts, the training of local officials for ‘capacity development,’ the supply of equipment, or financial assistance.”

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Yamada, S., Tsujimoto, A., Shimazu, Y. (2022). Japan’s Governmental Assistance in TVET for Industrial Human Resource Development: Changing Patterns of JICA’s Project-Based Cooperation. In: Kayashima, N., Kuroda, K., Kitamura, Y. (eds) Japan’s International Cooperation in Education. Education in the Asia-Pacific Region: Issues, Concerns and Prospects, vol 63. Springer, Singapore. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-16-6815-9_7

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-16-6815-9_7

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