Skip to main content

Japan’s International Education Cooperation Policy Before 1990: Controversy and Hesitancy Toward Interventions for Basic Education

  • Chapter
  • First Online:
Japan’s International Cooperation in Education

Part of the book series: Education in the Asia-Pacific Region: Issues, Concerns and Prospects ((EDAP,volume 63))

  • 357 Accesses

Abstract

This chapter illustrates the controversies and changes in Japan’s international cooperation in education from the initial stages of its history. In 1954, Japan initiated a modest foreign student scholarship program, mainly targeting students from developing countries. In the 1960s, while supporting the UNESCO-initiated Karachi Plan, Japanese educators became more interested in assisting Asian countries, and the Japanese government’s External Economic Cooperation Council advocated a new policy of strengthening technical cooperation programs, including those in the education sector. Meanwhile, they emphasized that because education is closely related to the sovereignty and nationalism of a country, international aid must be sensitive toward these issues, particularly in interventions for basic education. In 1971, in order to consider the development of a national policy, the Ministry of Education established an Ad Hoc Council on Educational Cooperation for Asian Countries. Though the Council presented a positive attitude, Japan continued to be very reluctant to commit itself to basic education in developing countries. International education cooperation programs operated by the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs focused mainly on the fields of higher education and vocational training. This cautious and diffident attitude toward basic education assistance prevailed among the Japanese ODA community until the World Conference on Education for All in 1990.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Chapter
USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
eBook
USD 139.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Softcover Book
USD 179.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info
Hardcover Book
USD 179.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  • Ad Hoc Council on Educational Cooperation for Asian Countries. (1972). Ajiashokoku ni taisuru kyoiku kyoryoku no arikata ni tsuite [Approach to educational cooperation for the Asian countries].

    Google Scholar 

  • Amagi, I. (1962, June). Ajia ni okeru kyoiku no hatten [Educational development in Asia]. Monthly Journal of Monbusho, 22–30.

    Google Scholar 

  • Central Council for Education. (1974). Kyoiku gakujyutsu bunka ni okeru kokusai koryu ni tsuite (toshin) [International exchange in education, science and culture (Recommendation)].

    Google Scholar 

  • Education Survey Mission. (1961). Kanbojia, maraya, indoneshia, tai kyoikujijo hokokusyo [Educational survey report on Cambodia, Malaya, Indonesia, and Thailand].

    Google Scholar 

  • External Economic Cooperation Council [EECC]. (1971). Kaihatsu tojokoku ni taisuru gijutu kyoryoku no kakuju kyoka no tameno shisaku ni tsuite [Policy measures for expanding and enhancing technical cooperation for developing countries].

    Google Scholar 

  • Ishizuki, M. (1989). Nihon no taigai kyoiku [Japan's external education]. Toshindo.

    Google Scholar 

  • JICA. (1994a). Study on development assistance for development and education.

    Google Scholar 

  • JICA. (1994b). Kaihatsu to kyoiku bunyabetsu shien kenkyukai houkoku, Genjyo bunseki shiryo hen [Report of the Study Group on Development Assistance: Development and Education. Current Data].

    Google Scholar 

  • Kamibeppu, T. (2002). History of Japanese policies in education aid to developing countries, 1950s–1990s: The role of the subgovernmental processes. Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ministry of Education [MOE]. (1962). Japan’s growth and education. Retrieved April 1, 2021, from https://warp.ndl.go.jp/info:ndljp/pid/11293659/www.mext.go.jp/b_menu/hakusho/html/hpae196301/index.html

  • Ministry of Foreign Affairs [MOFA]. (1980). Diplomatic Blue Book 1980 edition: Review of recent developments in Japan's Foreign Relations. Retrieved April 1, 2021, from https://www.mofa.go.jp/policy/other/bluebook/1980/1980-contents.htm

  • Overseas Technical Cooperation Agency [OTCA]. (1973). Kaigai gijutsu kyoryoku jigyodan 10nen no ayumi [The 10-year history of the Overseas Technical Cooperation Agency (OTCA)].

    Google Scholar 

  • Saito, Y. (2008). Wagakuni no kisokyoikuenjo tabu ron no rekishiteki rutu [Historical roots of Japan’s taboo discourse on aid to basic education]. Journal of International Cooperation in Education, 11(2), 113–127.

    Google Scholar 

  • Saito, Y. (2011). Wagakuni no kokusai kyoiku kyoryoku no rinen oyobi seisaku no rekishitekikeihu nikansuru kenkyu [Research on the principle of Japan’s international cooperation in education from a historical perspective]. National Institute for Educational Policy Research.

    Google Scholar 

  • Saito, Y. (2013). Karachi Plan saiko: Ajia ni okeru syotogimukyoiku huhenka eno yume to genjitsu [Rethinking the Karachi Plan: Dream and reality of universal, free primary education]. NIER Research Bulletin, 142, 209–223.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sato, K. (1962, October). Kyoikubunka no kokusaikoryu [International exchange of education and culture)]. Monthly Journal of Monbusho, 226–239.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sato, K. (1964, March). Kyoikubunka no kokusaikoryu [International exchange of education and culture]. Monthly Journal of Monbusho, 74–81.

    Google Scholar 

  • Soda, K. (1972, January). Ajia no kyoiku kyoryoku [Educational cooperation for Asia]. Monthly Journal of Monbusho, 26–28.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sugishita, T. (2005). Enjogyosei enjoseisaku [Aid administration and aid policies]. In K. Goto et al. (Eds.), Nihon no kokusai kaihatsu kyoryoku [Japan’s International Development Cooperation] (pp. 75–93). Nippon Hyoron Sha.

    Google Scholar 

  • Utsumi, S. (2001). Kokusai kyoiku kyouryoku ron [International cooperation in education]. Seaki Shiso Sha.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2022 The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

About this chapter

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this chapter

Saito, Y. (2022). Japan’s International Education Cooperation Policy Before 1990: Controversy and Hesitancy Toward Interventions for Basic Education. In: Kayashima, N., Kuroda, K., Kitamura, Y. (eds) Japan’s International Cooperation in Education. Education in the Asia-Pacific Region: Issues, Concerns and Prospects, vol 63. Springer, Singapore. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-16-6815-9_2

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-16-6815-9_2

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Singapore

  • Print ISBN: 978-981-16-6814-2

  • Online ISBN: 978-981-16-6815-9

  • eBook Packages: EducationEducation (R0)

Publish with us

Policies and ethics