• Naim HaieEmail author
Part of the Water Resources Development and Management book series (WRDM)


This chapter is to help the readers appreciate the wide range of situations that the concepts and tools presented in this book should be employed in order to get a better insight into their functioning. Most of the examples given are not real case studies; however, they are mostly adapted from real situations. The application examples are about urban water and wastewater cycle, urban water equity, irrigation under water scarcity, water-energy-food entangled systems, and the combined impact of an urban area and an irrigation zone on their common source of water, which is a river with a minimum water requirement. We also explain, through a simple example, the problems associated with an important water supply myth. The schematics of the WUSs used in this Chapter are given with the hope that they can sharpen the understanding of the ideas.


  1. Ahmad M, Haie N (2018) Assessing the impacts of population growth and climate change on performance of water use systems and water allocation in Kano River basin, Nigeria. Water 10(12):1–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Burt C et al (1997) Irrigation performance measures—efficiency and uniformity. J Irrigation Drain Eng ASCE 123(6):423–442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Dworak T et al (2007) EU water saving potential (Part 1 - Final Report). Ecologic Institute for International and European Environmental, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  4. European Commission (2013) Resource and economic efficiency of water distribution networks in the EU, Final Report. European Commission, Brussels, BelgiumGoogle Scholar
  5. Haie N (2016) Sefficiency (Sustainable efficiency) of water-energy-food entangled systems. Int J Water Resour Dev 32(5):721–737CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Haie N (2020) My Google website. [Online] Available at: Accessed 13 April 2020
  7. Haie N, Freitas MR, Pereira JC (2018) Integrating water footprint and sefficiency: overcoming water footprint criticisms and improving decision making. Water Alternatives 11(3):933–956Google Scholar
  8. Hoekstra AY (2003) Virtual water trade. Delft, The Netherlands, snGoogle Scholar
  9. Hoekstra A, Chapagain A, Aldaya M, Mekonnen M (2011) The water footprint assessment manual: setting the global standard. Earthscan, LondonGoogle Scholar
  10. ISO (2014) ISO 14046: environmental management: water footprint—principles, requirements and guidelines, 1st edn. International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  11. Leaks Suite (2019) Unavoidable annual real losses & infrastructure leakage index [Online]. Available at: Accessed 27 Dec 2019
  12. Loucks D, Van Beek E (2005) Water resources systems planning and management: an introduction to methods, models and applications. UNESCO, ParisGoogle Scholar
  13. Perry C, Steduto P, Allen RG, Burt CM (2009) Increasing productivity in irrigated agriculture: agronomic constraints and hydrological realities. Agric Water Manage 96:1517–1524CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2021

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of MinhoGuimarãesPortugal

Personalised recommendations