• Naim HaieEmail author
Part of the Water Resources Development and Management book series (WRDM)


The theory of this book is vital for water policy, planning and practice due to the high complexity inherent in water use systems, which, in turn, demands a coherent and clearly defined terminology for transparent and accurate analysis. In this chapter, we define most of the basic vocabularies needed in this book. In doing so, we employed current water terminology from various sectors unified through their formal definitions from valid references, including dictionaries. For example, we start with an unambiguous distinction between a water resource and a service provider. We call the latter a Water Use System, which becomes the focus of management and is analysed autonomously and by associating it to its sources of water, and consequently to the (transboundary) water body or basin.


  1. ASCE-EWRI (2005) The ASCE standardized reference evapotranspiration equation. American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA, USAGoogle Scholar
  2. Cambridge Dictionary (2018) Use. [Online]. Available at: Accessed 24 Oct 2018
  3. FAO (1998) Crop evapotranspiration: guidelines for computing crop water requirements. FAO: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  4. Haie N, Keller A (2012) Macro, meso, and micro-efficiencies in water resources management: a new framework using water balance. J Am Water Resour Assoc (JAWRA) 48(2):235–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Haie N, Keller A (2014) Macro, Meso, and Micro-efficiencies and terminologies in water resources management: a look at urban and agricultural differences. Water Int 39(1):35–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Haie N (2020) My Google website. [Online]. Available at: Accessed 13 April 2020
  7. Haie N, Pereira R, Yen H (2018) An introduction to the hyperspace of Hargreaves-Samani Reference evapotranspiration. Sustainability 10(11):1–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Haie N, Pereira R, Machado G, Shahidian S (2019) An introduction to the hyperspace of Penman-Monteith Reference evapotranspiration. Int J Hydrol Sci Technol 9(1):48–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Keller A, Keller J (1995) Effective efficiency: a water use efficiency concept for allocating freshwater resources. Winrock International, Arlington, VirginiaGoogle Scholar
  10. Loucks D, Van Beek E (2005) Water resources systems planning and management: an introduction to methods, models and applications. UNESCO, ParisGoogle Scholar
  11. Sutcliffe JV (2004) Hydrology: a question of balance. IAHS Press, slGoogle Scholar
  12. UN-HLPW (2017) Bellagio principles on valuing water. United Nations, Sustainable Development Goals (SDG), High Level Panel on Water. [Online]. Available at: Accessed 29 Sept 2017
  13. UN-Water (2013) Water security & the global water agenda: a UN-water analytical brief. United Nations University, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  14. UN-Water (2019) Water as a global issue. [Online]. Available at: Accessed 10 Aug 2019

Copyright information

© The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2021

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of MinhoGuimarãesPortugal

Personalised recommendations