Advertisement

Neuro-Physiological Correlates of Voice Onset Time in Kannada and Tamil Speaking

Conference paper
  • 422 Downloads
Part of the Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering book series (LNME)

Abstract

Voice Onset Time (VOT) refers to the time difference between two events—one articulatory and the other laryngeal. VOT is measured as the time difference between the onset of the burst (articulatory event) and the onset of vocal fold vibration (laryngeal event) Lisker [14]. The cross-linguistic variation with respect to voicing perception is more in multilingual countries like India. For example, in Tamil language, there is no good distinction between voiced and unvoiced stops; however, in Kannada, Telugu, and Hindi, there exists a difference. To verify the cross-linguistic difference, the behavioral response for VOT continuum in native Kannada and Tamil speakers, and the neuro-physiological changes for VOT continuum in native Kannada and Tamil speakers were taken as objective of the study. Two groups of subjects were participated in the study. Group I consisted of ten male Kannada speakers in the age range of 20–35 years. All the subjects were native speakers of Kannada language, and they belong to Mysore dialect and they are fluent speakers in Kannada only. All though they were exposed to English, they were not fluent speakers of English or Hindi. Group II consisted of ten male Tamil speakers in the age range of 20–35. All the subjects were native speakers of Tamil language, and they belong to Coimbatore/Chennai dialect and they are fluent speakers in Tamil only. Although they were exposed to English, they were not fluent speakers of English or Kannada or Hindi. From the naturally recorded speech sounds, /da-ta/ continuum was created using copy past synthesis method. This continuum had 10 tokens. Using this stimulus, behavioral identification curve was generated. Also electrophysiological, N100 potential was recorded using Neuro-Scan instrument (Compumedies, AUS) with five tokens, which covers the entire dynamic range of the /da-ta/ continuum. The recording was done with 16 channels. The behavioral result showed there was difference between Tamil and Kannada languages; however, electrophysiological results showed that there was a change with N100 latency with changing VOT but there was no language difference found. The author concluded that N100 may not be an effective measure to indicate to represent the voice /voiceless categorical perception. May be higher potential might give better information.

References

  1. 1.
    Lisker L, Abramson A (1964) A cross language study of voicing in initial stops: Acoustical measurements. Word 20:384–422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Abramson, A., and Lisker, L. (1965). Voice onset time in stop consonants: Acoustic analysis and synthesis. Proceedings of the 5th International Congress of Acoustics. Liege: Imp. G. ThoneGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Studdert- Kennedy M (1976) Speech perception. In: Lass NJ (ed) Contemporary issues in experimental phonetics. Academic press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Williams L (1977) The perception of stop consonant voicing bySpanish-English bilinguals. Percept Psychophys 19:285–289Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Williams, L. (1980). Phonetic variation as a function of second language learning. In G. HGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Savithri SR, Pushpavathi M, Sujatha S (1995) Development of speech production and perception. Some temporal aspects. Journal of Indian Speech & Hearing Association 14:1–10Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Sathya, R.and Savithri, S., R. (1996). Development of auditory perceptual processing in children. Unpublished doctoral thesis submitted to University of Mysore, MysoreGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sharma A, Dorman MF (1999) Cortical auditory evokedpotential correlates of categorical perception of voice-onsettime. J Acoust Soc Am 106:1078–1083CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sharma A, Dorman M (2000) Neurophysiologic correlates ofcross-language phonetic perception. J Acoust Soc Am 107:2697–2703CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Horev, N., Most, T., and Pratt, H. (2007). Categorical Perception of Speech (VOT) and Analogous Non-Speech (FOT) signals: Behavioral and electrophysiological correlates.Ear Hearing, 28(1), 111-28Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Savithri, S. R. (1997). Development of speech perception in children. Proceedings of International conference on computational Linguistics, Speech and Document Processing, pp 368-384Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Jayakumar T, Venugopal MB, Savithri SR (2006) Perception of voicing in Tamil and Hindi speakers. Proceeding of national acoustic society of India, MysoreGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Martin, B. A., Tremblay, K. L., and Stapells, D. R. (2007). Principlesand applications of cortical auditory evoked potentials. In R. F.Burkard, J. J. Eggermont, & M. Don (Eds.), Auditory evokedpotentials: basic principles and clinical application (Chap. 23).Lippincott, Williams and WilkinsGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lie´geois-Chauvel, C., De Graaf, J. B., Laguitton, V., and Chauvel, P.(1999). Specialization of left auditory cortex for speech perceptionin man depends on temporal coding. Cerebral Cortex, 9,484–496Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Steinschneider M, Schroeder CE, Arezzo JC, Vaughan HG (1994) Speech-evoked activity in primary auditory cortex: Effects of voice onset time. Electroencephalography and ClinicalNeurophysiology 92:30–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Steinschneider M, Volkoc I, Noh M, Garell P, Howard MT (1999) Temporal encoding of the voice onset time phoneticparameter by field potentials recorded directly from humanauditory cortex. J Neurophysiol 82:2346–2357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Steinschneider M, Volkov IO, Fishman YI, Oya H, Arezzo JC, Howard MA (2005) Intracortical responses inhuman and monkey primary auditory cortex support a temporalprocessing mechanism for encoding of the voice onset timephonetic parameter. Cereb Cortex 5:170–186Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    King KA, Campbell J, Sharma A, Martin K, Dorman M, Langran J (2008) The representation of voice onset time in the cortical auditory evoked potentials of young children. Clin Neurophysiol 119(12):2855–2861CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Dalebout SD, Stack JW (1999) Mismatch negativity to acoustic differences not differentiated behaviorally. Journal of American Academy of Audiology 10(7):388–399Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Elangovan S, Stuart A (2011) A cross-linguistic examination of cortical auditory evoked potentials for a categorical voicing contrast. Neuroscience Lettan 490(2):140–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Flege JE, Eefting W (1986) Linguistic and developmental effects on the production and perception of stop consonants. Phonetica 43:155–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
  23. 23.
  24. 24.
    Kraus N, McGee T, Micco A, Sharma A, Carrell T, Nicol T (1993) Mismatch negativity in school-age children to speech stimuli that are just perceptibly different. Electroencephalogram Clinical Neurophysiology 88(2):123–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Liberman AM, Harris KS, Hoffman HS, Griffith BC (1957) The discrimination of speech sounds within and across phoneme boundaries. J Exp Psychol 54:358–368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Liederman, J., Frye, R., Fisher, J. M., Greenwood, K., and Alexander, R. (2005). A temporally dynamic context effect that disrupts voice onset time discrimination of rapidly successive stimuli.Psychology Bull Rev., 12(2), 380-6Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Lisker L, Abramson A (1967) Voicing Contrast: Perceptual and productive voice onset time characteristics of adult. Journal of Acoustic society of America 56(3):981–994Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Naatanen R, Picton TW (1987) The N1 wave of the humanelectric and magnetic response to sound: a review and ananalysis of the component structure. Psychophysiology 24:375–425CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Pegg, J. E., and Werker, J. F. (1997) Adult and infant perception of two English phones.Journal of Acoustic society of America, 102(6), 3742–3753Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Pegg JE, Werker JF (1997) Adult and infant perception of two English phones. Journal of Acoustic society of America 102(6):3742–3753CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Sharma A, Marsh CM, Dorman MF (2000) Relationshipbetween N1 evoked potential morphology and the perception ofvoicing. J Acoust Soc Am 108:3030–3035CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Simon C (1974) Some aspect of development of speech production and perception in children, Speech communication seminar, 7-15. Stockholm, John Wiley and sons, LondonGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Simos PG, Molfese DL, Brenden RA (1997) Behavioraland electrophysiological indices of voicing-cue discrimination: Laterality patterns and development. Brain Lang 57:122–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Sinex DG, McDonald LP, Mott JB (1991) Neural correlates of nonmonotonic temporal acuity for voice onset time. Journal of Acoustic society of America 90(5):2441–2449CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Sreedevi N, Savithri SR (1991) Cross language study of stop perception. Journal of Indian Speech & Hearing Association 8:14–20Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Tampas JW, Harkrider AW, Hedrick MS (2005) Neurophysiological indices of speech and nonspeech stimulus processing. Journal of Speech Language Hearing Research 48(5):1147–1164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Toscano, J. C., McMurray, B., Dennhardt, J., and Luck, S. J. (2010). Continuous perception and graded categorization: electrophysiological evidence for a linear relationship between the acoustic signal and perceptual encoding of speech.Psychology Science, 21(10), 1532-40Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Tremblay KL, Piskosz M, Souza P (2003) Effects of age andage-related hearing loss on the neural representation of speechcues. Clin Neurophysiol 114:1332–1343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Werker, J. F, and Logan, J. S. (1985).Cross-language evidence for three factors in speech perception.PerceptionPsychophysic, 37(1), 35-44Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Williams L (1977) The voicing contrast in Spanish. Journal of Phonetics 5:169–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Williams L (1977) The perception of stop consonant voicing by Spanish-English bilinguals. Percept Psychophys 21:289–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Yeni-Komshian, J. F. Kavanagh and C. A. Ferguson (Eds.), Child Phonology, vol.2: Perception, Academic press: NewYork, 1980Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Zlatin M, Koenigsknecht R (1975) Development of the voicing contrast: Perception of stop consonants. J Speech Hear Res 18:541–553CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2021

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Speech-Language SciencesAll India Institute of Speech and HearingMysuruIndia
  2. 2.Department of Clinical Research, Facility of HealthSouth Denmark UniversitySønderborgDenmark

Personalised recommendations