Voice as a Parameter to Assess Mizāj

Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering book series (LNME)


The need for this article is to strengthen the observational hypothesis and to find out the correlation between voice and Mizāj (Temperament). Voice is one of the most important physiological functions of the body which has some characteristic features for the differentiation of human body on the basis of Mizāj. Science needs continuous progression in every filed. Hence, many civilizations have been working to understand human body almost on every aspect of it, namely, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, etc. to keep them alive and healthy. In search of the same, Unani scholars found out seven basic constituents of human body, where Mizāj comes on second number. There are some parameters to diagnose temperament; physiological function is one of them. Voice is a physiological function of the body and has various characteristics which are present in all the individuals according to their Mizāj. Mizāj could be either Ḥar (hot) or Barid (cold) associated with passive properties Ruṭūbat and yubusāt (moistness and dryness). To see the history and course of Mizāj with respect to voice, ancient classical Unani literature was reviewed on this topic. Voice samples were collected, and time taken to speak a specific sentence in healthy female volunteers having different types of temperament was determined. With the help of the literature, it can be concluded that Ḥar Mizāj (Hot Temperament) has stronger characteristics than Barid Mizāj (Cold Temperament) as various previous works done on different parameters of temperament proved it. Here, with respect to voice, also results are in favour of the above conclusion. The results show significant difference between different temperaments with respect to time given to them to complete the sentence for the assessment purpose.


Unani Voice Temperament Ajnās ‘Ashara Voice parameters 


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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2021

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of KulliyatAjmal Khan Tibbiya College, A.M.UAligarhIndia
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical EngineeringAMUAligarhIndia

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