Design for Value Creation

  • Tomomi NonakaEmail author


This chapter addresses the value creation design of “food”. Food has both the tangible characteristics of the food itself and the intangibility of its associated delivery processes. In designing food value creation, it is desirable to consider simultaneity, perishability, and heterogeneity as characteristics of services. Moreover, when designing food value creation, one must realize the three perspectives of customer satisfaction, employee satisfaction, and management satisfaction. To improve the added value surrounding food, one must positively analyze customer behavior, response to demand fluctuations, employee satisfaction, and link service profit chains. This chapter presents a description of analyses using customer and employee data at the realization site and food service system design.


  1. W.O. Bearden, J.E. Teel, Selected determinants of consumer satisfaction and complaint reports. J. Mark. Res. 20(1), 21–28 (1983)Google Scholar
  2. C.P. Bebko, Service Intangibility and its impact on consumer expectations of service quality. J. Service Marketing 14(1), 9–26 (2000)Google Scholar
  3. J. Bengtsson, J. Seddon, Cradle to retailer or quick service restaurant gate life cycle assessment of chicken products in Australia. J. Clean. Prod. 41, 291–300 (2013)Google Scholar
  4. K.L. Bernhardt, N. Donthu, P.A. Kennett, A longitudinal analysis of satisfaction and profitability. J. Bus. Res. 47(2), 161–167 (2000)Google Scholar
  5. S.M. Deng, J. Burnett, A study of energy performance of hotel buildings in Hong Kong. Energy Build. 31(1), 7–12 (2000)Google Scholar
  6. G. Gazzoli, M. Hancer, Y. Park, The Role and effect of job satisfaction and empowerment on customers’ perception of service quality a study in the restaurant, in-dustry. J. Hospital. Tourism Research 34(1), 56–77 (2010)Google Scholar
  7. J.K. Harter, F.L. Schmidt, T.L. Hayes, Business-unit-level relationship between employee satisfaction, employee engagement, and business outcomes: a meta-analysis. J. Appl. Psychol. 87(2), 268–279 (2002)Google Scholar
  8. M.D. Hartline, O.C. Ferrell, The management of customer-contact service employees: an empirical investigation. J. Market. 60(4), 52–70 (1996)Google Scholar
  9. S.G. Hart, L.E. Staveland, Development of NASA-TLX (Task Load Index): results of empirical and theoretical research, P. A. Hancock and N. Meshkati (eds.), Human Mental Workload, North-Holland, pp. 139–183, 1998Google Scholar
  10. J.L. Heskett, T.O. Jones, G.W. Loveman, W.E. Sasser Jr., L.A. Schlesinger, Putting the service-profit chain to work. Harvard Bus. Rev. 72, 164–174 (1994)Google Scholar
  11. C. Homburg, R.M. Stock, Exploring the conditions under which salesperson work satisfaction can lead to customer satisfaction. Psychol. Market. 22(5), 393–420 (2005)Google Scholar
  12. M.T. Iaffaldano, P.M. Muchinsky, Job Satisfaction and job performance: a meta-analysis. Psychol. Bull. 97, 251–273 (1985)Google Scholar
  13. T.A. Judge, C.J. Thoresen, J.E. Bono, G.K. Patton, The job satisfaction-job performance relationship: a qualitative and quantitative review. Psychol. Bull. 127, 379–407 (2001)Google Scholar
  14. B.J. Jyeshtharaj, B.P. Aniruddha, B.P. Shirish, et al., Development of efficient designs of cooking systems. II. Computat. Fluid Dynam. Optimizat. Industr. Eng. Chem. Res. 51(3), 1897–1922 (2011)Google Scholar
  15. D.J. Koys, The effects of employee satisfaction, organizational citizenship behavior, and turnover on organizational effectiveness: a unit-level longitudinal study, Personal. Psychology 54(1), 101–114 (2001)Google Scholar
  16. S. Kubo, A new cooking system of the food service industry (in Japanese). Journal of Cookery Science of Japan 30(3), 285–289 (1997)Google Scholar
  17. T. Levitt, Marketing Intangible products and product intangibles. Harvard Bus. Rev. 59(3), 94–102 (1981)Google Scholar
  18. W. Luo, M.J. Liveratore, R.L. Nydick, Q.B. Chung, E. Sloane, Impact of process change on customer perception of waiting time: a field study. Int. Journal of Man-agement Science Omega 32(1), 77–83 (2004)Google Scholar
  19. C.C. Muller, The business of restaurant: 2001 and beyond. Int. J. Hospital. Manage. 18(4), 401–413 (1999)Google Scholar
  20. T. Nonaka, T. Shimmura, N. Fujii, H. Mizuyama, Energy consumption in food service business: a conceptual model of energy management considering service properties, innovative production management towards sustainable growth part II, Edited by S. Umeda, M. Nakano, H. Mizuyama, H. Hibino, D. Kiritsis, G.v. Cieminski, Springer, Boston, pp. 605–611, 2015Google Scholar
  21. T. Nonaka, T. Shimmura, N. Fujii, H. Mizuyama, A production planning game: employee training to flexibly adapt to environmental changes in service systems, in Proceedings of Council of Engineering Systems Universities, Global Conference 2018, Tokyo, June, (2018)Google Scholar
  22. T. Nonaka, M. Igarashi, H. Mizuyama, Customer satisfaction model for effective fast fashion store service. advances in production management systems, innovative and knowledge-based production management in a global-local world, Springer 439, 587–594 (2014)Google Scholar
  23. T. Nonaka, T. Kaihara, N. Fujii, F. Yu, T. Shimmura, Y. Hisano, Employee Satisfaction Analysis in Food Service Industry – Resultant of Questionnaire to the Restaurant Staff – (Serviceology for Designing the Future, Springer, Boston, 2016a), pp. 23–36Google Scholar
  24. T. Nonaka, N. Fujii, T. Shimmura, T. Takahashi, T. Kaihara, An employee satisfaction model considering customer satisfaction—difference analysis of staff work positions in restaurant services—(in Japanese). Journal of Japan Industrial Management Association 67(1), 59–69 (2016b)Google Scholar
  25. J. Reynierse, J. Harker, Employees and customer perceptions of service in bank: teller and customer service representative ratings. Human Resources Planning 15(4), 31–46 (1992)Google Scholar
  26. S. Righi, L. Oliviero, M. Pedrini, A. Buscaroli, C.C. Casa, Life cycle assessment of management systems for sewage sludge and food waste: centralized and decentralized approaches. J. Clean. Prod. 44, 8–17 (2013)Google Scholar
  27. E.M. Schau, A.M. Fet, LCA studies of food products as background for environmental product declarations. Int. J. LCA 13(3), 255–264 (2008)Google Scholar
  28. L.A. Schlesinger, J.L. Heskett, Breaking the cycle of failure in services. Sloan Manag. Rev. 32(3), 17–28 (1991)Google Scholar
  29. T. Shimmura, M. Akamatsu, T. Takenaka, S. Oura, Study of Process Improvement in Restaurant by Using Cooking Behavior Analysis and Customer’s order Information. Journal of Japan Industrial Management Association (in Japanese) 62(1), 12–20 (2011)Google Scholar
  30. T. Shimmura, M. Akamatsu, H. Matsunami, T. Takenaka, S. Ohura, Study on rearrangement of kitchen operations to satisfy both work efficiency and quality of dish. J. Jpn. Industr. Manag. Assoc. (in Japanese) 63(4), 258–266 (2013a)Google Scholar
  31. T. Shimmura, T. Takenaka, S. Ohura, Improving labor productivity and labor elasticity at multiproduct japanese cuisine restaurant introducing cell-production system, Advances in Production Management Systems. Sustainable Production and Service Supply Chains, IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology 415, 11–17 (2013b)Google Scholar
  32. T. Shimmura, T. Kaihara, N. Fujii, T. Takenaka, Improving customer’s subjective waiting time introducing digital signage. Advances in Production Management Systems, Competitive Manufacturing for Innovative Products and Services, Springer, 398, 385–391 (2013c)Google Scholar
  33. B. Sill, Operations engineering: improving multiunit operations. Cornell Hotel Restaurant Administr. Quarter. 35(3), 64–71 (1994)Google Scholar
  34. G.S. Sureshchandar, C. Rajendran, R.N. Anantharaman, The relationship between service quality and customer satisfaction—a factor specific approach. The Journal of Service Marketing 16(4), 363–379 (2002)Google Scholar
  35. K. Suzuki, The machine: art of craftmaster. Journal of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers (in Japanese) 111(1081), 952–953 (2008)Google Scholar
  36. S.A. Taylor, T.L. Baker, An assessment of the relationship between service quality and customer satisfaction in the formation of consumers’ purchase intentions. J. Retail. 70(2), 163–178 (1994)Google Scholar
  37. M.H. Yoon, S.E. Beatty, J. Suh, The effect of work climate on critical employee and customer outcomes: an employee-level analysis. Int. Journal of Service Industry Management 12(5), 500–521 (2001)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Ritsumeikan UniversityShigaJapan

Personalised recommendations