Vehicle Scheduling Model for an Electric Bus Line
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The promotion of electric buses is of great significance for reducing vehicle emission, decreasing operation costs of transit corporations and workloads of bus drivers. However, the adoption of electric buses is constrained by their limited driving range. To guarantee the regular level of service, electric buses need to get recharged during daily operating hours. Electric bus battery life is highly correlated to charging modes. In this study, we proposed a mixed charging strategy with the setup of lower and upper limits of battery state of charge (SOC). A bi-level optimization model for electric bus scheduling was developed considering bus fleet size, variance of travel times of all buses and their idling times. The lower-level model is to minimize the variance of travel times and to maximize the average idling times of all buses. The upper-level model is to minimize the extra economic cost resulting from the bus fleet expansion. A case study is conducted to assess the proposed optimization model with a real electric bus route. The results show that the proposed model is capable of maintaining bus battery SOC within the reasonable range.
KeywordsElectric bus Static scheduling Mixed charging strategy Battery state of charge Bi-level optimization model
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