Conceiving and Preparing: Unfolding the Doctoral Map



The previous chapter presented and discussed the adopted study methodology. In this chapter and Chaps.  5 and  6, data collected from the fieldwork was presented and analysed. As this chapter centres around the first student experience phase, namely planning phase, it is committed to delineating key findings from interviews in relation to the questions of “Why do Chinese doctoral students (CDS) decide to have an overseas doctoral experience in an Australian university?” and “How prepared are they for this experience?”.


  1. Austin, L. (2016). Factors influencing Chinese students’ decisions to study in the United States. Journal of International Students, 6(3), 722–732.Google Scholar
  2. Beine, M., Noel, R., & Ragot, L. (2014). The determinants of international mobility of students. Economics of Education Review, 41, 40–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Biggs, J. (1994). Asian learners through Western eyes: An astigmatic paradox. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Vocational Educational Research, 2(2), 40–63.Google Scholar
  4. Bodycott, P. (2009). Choosing a higher education study abroad destination: What mainland Chinese parents and students rate as important. Journal of Research in International Education, 8(3), 349–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Branco Oliveira, D., & Soares, A. M. (2016). Studying abroad: Developing a model for the decision process of international students. Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management, 38(2), 126–139. Scholar
  6. Bronfenbrenner, U. (1997). Ecological models of human development. In M. Gauvain & M. Cole (Eds.), Readings on the development of children (2nd ed., pp. 37–43). Basingstoke, England: W.H. Freeman.Google Scholar
  7. Brooks, R., & Waters, J. (2010). Social networks and educational mobility: The experiences of UK students. Globalisation, Societies and Education, 8(1), 143–157. Scholar
  8. Cebolla-Boado, H., Hu, Y., & Soysal, Y. N. (2018). Why study abroad? Sorting of Chinese students across British universities. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 39(3), 365–380. Scholar
  9. Chan, S. (1999). The Chinese learner—A question of style. Education+Training, 41(6/7), 294–305.
  10. Chen, J. M. (2017). Three levels of push-pull dynamics among Chinese international students’ decision to study abroad in the Canadian context. Journal of International Students, 7(1), 113–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cheng, M. H. M., & Wan, Z. H. (2016). Unpacking the paradox of Chinese science learners: Insights from research into Asian Chinese school students’ attitudes towards learning science, science learning strategies, and scientific epistemological views. Studies in Science Education, 52(1), 29–62. Scholar
  12. Chirkov, V., Vansteenkiste, M., Tao, R., & Lynch, M. (2007). The role of self-determined motivation and goals for study abroad in the adaptation of international students. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 31(2), 199–222. Scholar
  13. Çiftçi, E. Y., & Karaman, A. C. (2017). “I do not have to love them, I’m just interested in their language”: Preparation for a study abroad period and the negotiation(s) of intercultural competence. Language and Intercultural Communication, 1–18.
  14. Connaway, L. S., Dickey, T. J., & Radford, M. L. (2011). If it is too inconvenient, I’m not going after it: Convenience as a critical factor in information-seeking behaviors. Library and Information Science Research, 33, 179–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Delamont, S. (2001). The marriage analogy: Personal and positional relationships in PhD supervision. Paper at the Higher Education Close-Up Conference 2, July 1618, Lancaster University.Google Scholar
  16. Gopal, A. (2016). Visa and immigration trends: A comparative examination of international student mobility in Canada, Australia, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Strategic Enrollment Management Quarterly, 4(3), 130–141. Scholar
  17. Goulah, J. (2013). Daisaku Ikeda, language and education. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  18. Head, A. J., & Eisenberg, M. B. (2011). How college students use the web to conduct everyday life research. First Monday, 16(4). Accessed from
  19. Holliday, A., & MacDonald, M. N. (2019). Researching the intercultural: Intersubjectivity and the problem with postpositivism. Applied Linguistics, amz038.
  20. Jiani, M. A. (2016). Why and how international students choose Mainland China as a higher education study abroad destination. Higher Education, 74(4), 563–579. Scholar
  21. Keogh, J., & Russel-Roberts, E. (2009). Exchange programmes and student mobility: Meeting student’s expectations or an expensive holidays. Nurse Education Today, 29(1), 108–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kipnis, A. B. (2011). Subjectification and education for quality in China. Economy and Society, 40(2), 289–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Klein, M. H., Miller, M. H., & Alexander, A. A. (1981). The American experience of the Chinese student: On being normal in an abnormal world. In A. Kleinman & T. -Y. Lin (Eds.), Normal and abnormal behavior in Chinese culture (pp. 311–330). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lam, J. M. S., Ariffin, A. A. M., & Ahmad, A. H. (2011). Edutourism: Exploring the push-pull factors in selecting a university. International Journal of Business and Society, 12(1), 63–78.Google Scholar
  25. Li, M., & Bray, M. (2007). Cross-border flows of students for higher education: Push–pull factors and motivations of mainland Chinese students in Hong Kong and Macau. Higher Education, 53(6), 791–818. Scholar
  26. Li, Z. (2012). A critical account of employability construction through the eyes of Chinese postgraduate students in the UK. Journal of Education and Work, 26, 473–493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lin-Stephens, S., Uesi, J., & Doherty, J. (2015). Chinese returnees’ conceptions of positive career outcomes after graduating from Australian universities—quantitative findings. Australian Journal of Career Development, 24(2), 120–129. Scholar
  28. Marginson, S. (2014). Student self-formation in international education. Journal of Studies in International Education, 18(1), 6–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Markus, A., Jupp, J., & McDonald, P. (2009). Australia’s immigration revolution. Crows Nest, NSW, Australia: Allen & Unwin.Google Scholar
  30. Mazzarol, T., & Soutar, G. N. (2002). “Push-pull” factors influencing international student destination choice. International Journal of Educational Management, 16(2), 82–90. Scholar
  31. Morrell, D. L., Ravlin, E. C., Ramsey, J. R., & Ward, A. -K. (2013). Past experience, cultural intelligence, and satisfaction with international business studies. Journal of Teaching in International Business, 24(1), 31–43. Scholar
  32. Murray, K. B. (1991). A test of services marketing theory: Consumer information acquisition activities. Journal of Marketing, 55, 10–25. Scholar
  33. NBEET (National Board of Employment, Education and Training). (1989). Australian graduate studies and higher degrees. Canberra, AU: Australian Government Publishing Service.Google Scholar
  34. Phakiti, A., & Li, L. (2011). General academic difficulties and reading and writing difficulties among Asian ESL postgraduate students in TESOL at an Australian university. RELC Journal: A Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 42(3), 227–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Pyhältö, K., Nummenmaa, A. R., Soini, T., Stubb, J., & Lonka, K. (2012). Research on scholarly communities and the development of scholarly identity in Finnish doctoral education. In S. Ahola & D. M. Hoffman (Eds.), Higher education research in Finland: Emerging structures and contemporary issues (pp. 337–354). Finland: Jyväskylä University Press.Google Scholar
  36. Qi, W. (2015). Re-examining the ‘“Chinese learner”’: A case study of mainland Chinese students’ learning experiences at British universities. Higher Education, 70, 753–766. Scholar
  37. Shen, W.-Q., Liu, D., & Chen, H. (2017). Chinese Ph.D. students on exchange in European Union countries: Experiences and benefits. European Journal of Higher Education, 7(3), 322–335.
  38. Shoham, S., & Strauss, S. K. (2008). Immigrants’ information needs: Their role in the absorption process. Information Research, 13(4).
  39. Simon-Davies, J. (2018). Population and migration statistics in Australia. Parliamentary Library.Google Scholar
  40. Sin, S. -C. J. (2015). Demographic differences in international students’ information source uses and everyday information seeking challenges. The Journal of Academic Librarianship, 41(4), 466–474. Scholar
  41. Sin, S. -C. J., & Kim, K. -S. (2013). International students’ everyday life information seeking: The informational value of social networking sites. Library & Information Science Research, 35(2), 107–116. Scholar
  42. Singh, P., & Doherty, C. (2008). Mobile students in liquid modernity: Negotiating the politics of transnational identities. In N. Dolby & F. Rizvi (Eds.). Youth moves. Identities and education in global perspective (pp. 115–30). New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  43. Spinks, H. (2016). Overseas students: Immigration policy changes 1997–2015. Parliamentary Library.Google Scholar
  44. Survey of Earned Doctorates (SED). (2019). Median years to doctorate, by broad field of study: Selected years, 1993–2018. Accessed
  45. Vallerand, R. J., Pelletier, L. G., Blais, M. R., Briere, N. M., Senecal, C., & Vallieres, E. F. (1992). The academic motivation scale: A measure of intrinsic, extrinsic, and a motivation in education. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 52(4), 1003–1017. Scholar
  46. Wang, X., & Liu, J. (2011). China’s higher education expansion and the task of economic revitalization. Higher Education, 62, 213–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Wu, Q. (2014). Motivations and decision-making processes of mainland Chinese students for undertaking master’s programs abroad. Journal of Studies in International Education, 18(5), 426–444. Scholar
  48. Xiang, B., & Shen, W. (2009). International student migration and social stratification in China. International Journal of Educational Development, 29(5), 513–522.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Yang, M., Webster, B., & Prosser, M. (2011). Travelling a thousand miles: Hong Kong Chinese students’ study abroad experience. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 35, 69–78. Scholar
  50. Yang, Y., Volet, S., & Mansfield, C. (2017). Motivations and influences in Chinese international doctoral students’ decision for STEM study abroad. Educational Studies, 44(3), 264–278. Scholar
  51. Yin, H., Wang, W., & Han, J. (2015). Chinese undergraduates’ perceptions of teaching quality and the effects on approaches to studying and course satisfaction. Higher Education, 71(1), 39–57. Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of International RelationsSichuan International Studies UniversityChongqingChina
  2. 2.School of EducationThe University of NewcastleCallaghanAustralia
  3. 3.School of EducationThe University of NewcastleNewcastleAustralia

Personalised recommendations