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Conversion of Methane to Aromatic Hydrocarbons

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Abstract

The conversion of methane to aromatic hydrocarbons under non-oxidative reaction conditions using Mo-modified zeolites (Mo-zeolites) as catalysts is discussed. This reaction is known as methane dehydroaromatization (MDA). The MDA reaction, which can also proceed over H+-exchanged zeolites modified with other metal species (Fe, Re, W, Ru, Cr, Zn, Pt, and Mn), simultaneously produces both aromatic hydrocarbons, such as benzene and hydrogen via ethylene. The effects of the zeolite pore structure, Si/Al ratio of the zeolite, catalyst preparation conditions, and reaction operation conditions on the catalytic properties and activities of Mo-zeolites are discussed. The reaction mechanisms of C–C bond formation at the initial stage via the activation of methane over the Mo-zeolites and subsequent benzene formation are focused upon; the bifunctionality of the Mo-zeolite catalysts and the nature of the active molybdenum species in the MDA reaction are also discussed. In the initial stage, various molybdenum species, such as MoCx species, take part in the first C–C bond formation to produce C2H6 and C2H4 from CH4. Subsequently, acidic Brønsted acid sites (acidic protons) catalyze the conversion of C2H4 to benzene (C2H4 oligomerization), showing that the MDA reaction proceeds via bifunctional catalysis. However, catalyst deactivation remains a serious problem. The reaction inevitably produces carbon deposits on the catalyst, which precludes its industrial application. To increase the catalyst lifetime and optimize the conditions for continuous catalyst regeneration, computational studies and further catalyst characterization are continuing.

Keywords

Methane dehydroaromatization Benzene formation Mo-modified zeolites Bifunctional catalysis Molybdenum carbide species 

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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Tokyo Institute of TechnologyYokohamaJapan

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