Microorganisms and Their Enzymes as Biorestoration Agents

  • Chanda Parulekar-Berde
  • Sachin S. Ghoble
  • Sagar P. Salvi
  • Vikrant B. Berde


Cultural heritage (CH) includes art forms such as paintings, frescoes, stoneworks, etc. These are exposed to the combined effects of environmental factors as well as biological activities. The presence of an organic matter in or on the CH such as paintings, frescoes and statues renders them prone to microbial growth. The organic matter used for restoration, for example, glue on paintings and the chemical composition of the art form, serves as a source of carbon and energy, thus allowing the growth of microorganisms. This further degrades the surface of the CH. Consequences of these activities are seen in the form of damaged and deteriorating art forms, which sometimes are totally destroyed. Many methods are available for the cleaning and restoration of the damaged cultural heritage artwork. Use of microorganisms and their enzymes, i.e. biocleaning, amongst these, is the most effective and advantageous. These artistic pathologies can be treated with the help of viable microbial cultures as well as the enzymes produced by microorganisms. Selective isolation of non-pathogenic organic matter degraders and efficient enzyme producers is the starting point in the biorestoration process, followed by the purification of enzymes and their application for biocleaning. This chapter gives a glimpse of the new revolution in the restoration of cultural art forms using enzymes.


Cultural heritage Monuments Paintings Biocleaning Enzymes Microorganisms 



The authors are thankful to their respective institutions for the encouragement and support.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chanda Parulekar-Berde
    • 1
  • Sachin S. Ghoble
    • 2
  • Sagar P. Salvi
    • 1
  • Vikrant B. Berde
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of MicrobiologyGogate Jogalekar CollegeRatnagiriIndia
  2. 2.Department of ZoologyArts, Commerce and Science CollegeLanjaIndia

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