Formation of Slums and Slums Upgrading Initiatives in Bangladesh

  • Pranab Kumar Panday


In the year 2008, the total urban population outstripped the rural population throughout the world. The majority of people who started to live in urban areas created an enormous amount of pressure on the existence of cities and this influenced the growth of a large number of slum population in most of the countries of the world. Like other countries, Bangladesh has also experienced the growth of slum population. Most importantly, people who are coming to the cities for their livelihoods do not have tenure of land, and thus, they start to reside anywhere they find vacant. Thus, this chapter explores why slums form globally and later in the context of Bangladesh. In addition to this, slum upgrading initiatives in the country have been discussed briefly.


Slum Slum formation Slum relocation Slum upgradation Population growth Rural–urban migration Migration Agriculture Displacement Climate change Political struggle Industrial growth Urban governance Globalization Response of the government Garment industry Slum upgrading initiatives Community-driven initiatives Slum welfare Kingshuk LPUPAP UPPRP SIP DSK ASEH DMP PSTC Slum development SHEVA CUP CARE-Bangladesh IFSP BUILD STWSSSP Bangladesh 


  1. Ahmed, R. (2006, November). A case study on reaching the poorest & vulnerable. A paper presented in 32nd WEDC conference, Colombo, Sri Lanka. Retrieved May 23, 2010, from
  2. Asian Development Bank. (2009). Community-driven development country profile. Bangladesh. Retrieved June 10, 2010, from
  3. Asian Development Bank. (2014). Sustainable urbanization in Asia and Latin America. Manila: Asian Development Bank and Inter-American Development Bank.Google Scholar
  4. Banks, N. (2006). A tale of two wards: Political participation and the urban poor in Dhaka City. Working paper, Center for Governance Studies, BRAC University, Dhaka.Google Scholar
  5. BURT. (2005). Dialogue with donors on urban poverty issues. Dhaka: CARE.Google Scholar
  6. Camilo, A. C. A. (2008). Learning from slum upgrading and participation: A case study of participatory slum upgrading in the emergence of new governance in the city of Medellín–Colombia. KTH, Department of Urban Planning and Environment Division of Environmental Strategies Research.Google Scholar
  7. CARE, Bangladesh. (2002a). Integrated food security program (IFSP). Midterm Evaluation Report, Prepared by TANGO International, Inc. in collaboration with Human Development Research Centre, HDRC, Dhaka.Google Scholar
  8. CARE, Bangladesh. (2002b). Midterm evaluation of integrated food security program-IFSP. Prepared by TANGO International, Inc in collaboration with Human Development Research centre, HDRC, Dhaka.Google Scholar
  9. CUS et al. (2006). Slums of urban Bangladesh: Mapping and census, 2005. Dhaka: CUS (Center for Urban Studies).Google Scholar
  10. den Bold, M. V., Uwejamomere, T., & Vandermeer, K. (2010). Raising visibility and voices of the urban poor: Civil society’s engagement in urban water and sanitation reform—Experiences from WaterAid country programmes. A Report Prepared for WaterAid. Retrieved from BURT (2005) Position Paper, CARE-Bangladesh, Dhaka.Google Scholar
  11. Ellis, P., & Roberts, M. (2016). Leveraging urbanization in South Asia: Managing spatial transformation for prosperity and liveability. Washington, DC: World Bank Group.Google Scholar
  12. Hussain, D. J. (2007). Environmental sanitation, hygiene and water supply in urban slums and fringes project (GoB-Unicef). Project Completion Report, Dhaka.Google Scholar
  13. Islam, N., Mahbub, A., Nazem, N., Angeles, G., & Lance, P. (2006). Slums of urban Bangladesh: Mappying and census, 2005. Dhaka: Centre for Urban Studies, Measure Evaluation and National Institute of Population Research and Training.Google Scholar
  14. Jinnah, S. I. A. (2007). Rights of water connections for urban slum dwellers in Bangladesh: A study on DSK’s experience in three slums of Mirpur, Dhaka: WaterAid, Bangladesh. Retrieved June 2, 2010, from
  15. Menon, B. (n.d.). Informal settlement upgrading in Dhaka: Sector study. Urban housing and informal settlements in Bangladesh. Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar
  16. Prothom Alo. (2007, March 18). A widely circulated national daily published from Dhaka.Google Scholar
  17. Retrieved from June 23, 2017, from
  18. Retrieved July 12, 2017, from
  19. Retrieved July 25, 2017, from
  20. Retrieved June 24, 2018, from
  21. Retrieved March, 23, 2017, from
  22. Retrieved March 23, 2017, from
  23. Retrieved November 12, 2018, from
  24. Retrieved November 14, 2017, from
  25. Retrieved Number 12, 2018, from
  26. UN-DESA. (2006). The millennium development goals report. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, UNDP.Google Scholar
  27. UN-HABITAT. (2003). The challenge of slums: Global report on human settlements. London and Sterling: UN-HABITAT—Earthscan Publications Ltd.Google Scholar
  28. UN-HABITAT. (2007). Twenty first session of the governing council. Retrieved September 30, 2015, from
  29. United Nations. (2008). World urbanization prospects: The 2007 revision database. New York: United Nations.Google Scholar
  30. Ward, D. (1976). The Victorian slum: An enduring myth? Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 66(2), 323–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. WSUP. (2007). Water and sanitation for the urban poor. Scoping report. Water and Sanitation for the Urban Poor (WSUP), London.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pranab Kumar Panday
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Public AdministrationUniversity of RajshahiRajshahiBangladesh

Personalised recommendations