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Trichoderma pp 125-147 | Cite as

Induced Immunity Developed by Trichoderma Species in Plants

  • B. N. Chakraborty
  • U. Chakraborty
  • K. Sunar
Chapter
  • 57 Downloads
Part of the Rhizosphere Biology book series (RHBIO)

Abstract

One of the most interesting and important microorganisms in nature is Trichoderma, which, from being a mycoparasitic biocontrol agent (BCA), has now emerged as one with multiple traits such as antagonism to pathogen, competition with pathogens for nutrients, induction of systemic resistance in the host, overall plant growth promotion and also alleviation of abiotic stresses. Besides, interestingly, though they were reported earlier as soil and root colonizers only, it is now evident that several species of Trichoderma are endophytic. Interactions between plant and Trichoderma involve recognition, penetration, attachment and colonization and, finally, nutrient transfer from the root. Appressoria-like structures have been reported to be formed by Trichoderma which helps in root penetration, and two proteins TasHyd1 and qid74 were found to mediate the attachment of appressoria to the roots. Trichoderma produces a large number of secondary metabolites such as xylanases, cellulases, polygalacturonases, cerato-platanins, swollenins, peptaibols, 6-pentyl-α-pyrones and trichothecenes. These secondary metabolites help Trichoderma in various capacities, such as cell wall-degrading enzymes, elicitors and antimicrobial compounds. Trichoderma can trigger plant resistance towards pathogen attack by inducing plant immune response. Trichoderma viride, T. harzianum, T. virens, T. aureoviride and T. asperellum are being used as microbial inducers of plant immunity. An immunity-inducing protein (Sm1/Ep11) of the cerato-platanin family and elicitor produced by Trichoderma increase the expression of genes involved in defence, which in turn induces immunity. Trichoderma spp. release microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) required for molecular recognition leading to a signal cascade within the plant involving signalling molecules such as salicylic acid (SA), jasmonate (JA) and ethylene (ET). The defence responses triggered by Trichoderma, both locally and systemically, include enhanced accumulation of PR proteins, phytoalexins and terpenoids and enhanced activities of several enzymes such as phenylalanine ammonia lyase, peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase and lipoxygenase. Activation of such defence responses finally leads to crop protection through induced resistance.

Keywords

Biocontrol Secondary metabolites Plant immunity Induced resistance Defence enzymes 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. N. Chakraborty
    • 1
  • U. Chakraborty
    • 2
  • K. Sunar
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Biological SciencesAliah UniversityKolkataIndia
  2. 2.Department of BotanyUniversity of North BengalSiliguriIndia
  3. 3.Department of BotanyBalurghat Mahila MahavidyalayaBalurghatIndia

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