Trichoderma pp 251-266 | Cite as

Multipartite Interaction of Trichoderma harzianum (MTCC 5179) as Endophyte and a Growth Promoter of Black Pepper (Piper nigrum L.)

  • M. Anandaraj
  • P. Umadevi
Part of the Rhizosphere Biology book series (RHBIO)


Species of Trichoderma are used to control soilborne diseases as this versatile organism can adapt itself to varied ecological niche and utilize available nutrients. When it colonizes the plant root, entire microbial communities are altered, and the microbial community helps the plant by solubilizing the nutrients, secreting growth hormones, and preventing harmful effects of pathogens. Though all these effects were attributed to Trichoderma, recent metagenomic studies have revealed the complex multipartite interactions in the rhizosphere and inside host cell. Trichoderma species are now acknowledged as endophytes, and the mechanisms involved in suppressing the host defenses are documented.

The comparative genomics of Trichoderma species revealed the presence of genes in these mycoparasites to attack other pathogenic fungi and interact with plants. The advent of new-generation sequencing (NGS) techniques has opened new ways to analyze and find out the community pattern and functions in the soil rhizosphere. Most Trichoderma species function almost similar to the mycorrhiza. When a root is colonized by mycorrhiza, the microbial community changes around the rhizosphere, hence referred to as “mycorrhizosphere effect.” Similarly, metagenomics studies have found the microbial community changes in the rhizosphere of Trichoderma harzianum-applied roots leading to a “trichorhizosphere effect.” Multipartite interaction studies have shown the mechanisms of Trichoderma to maintain the plant metabolism and suppress the plant immunity for its own establishment. Genes mediating beneficial interactions with associated microbes can be manipulated to increase the efficiency of the rhizosphere by the gene editing techniques.


Multipartite interactions Microbial community Trichorhizosphere Immunity suppression Nutrient mobilization 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Anandaraj
    • 1
  • P. Umadevi
    • 1
  1. 1.ICAR—Indian Institute of Spices ResearchKozhikodeIndia

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