Part of the Springer Theses book series (Springer Theses)


Pharmaceuticals include one or multiple bioactive ingredients that cure and/or alleviate symptoms in human or veterinary diseases. Many of these ingredients are excreted from the body in an unmetabolized form and/or as active metabolites via urine and/or feces. High chemical stability of the ingredients is crucial for quality control of pharmaceuticals during long-term storage before administration. However, in terms of the impacts on the natural environment and ecosystems, stable bioactive substances with high bioactivity may have unfavorable effects on non-target species after excretion from patients or treated animals. To overcome these disadvantages, drug design to turn off bioactivity after release into the environment is needed.


Environmental impact GnRH Neurokinin B Neurokinin-3 receptor antagonist 


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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Graduate School of Pharmaceutical SciencesKyoto UniversityKyotoJapan

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