Advertisement

Biofilm Usefulness

Chapter
  • 290 Downloads

Abstract

This chapter describes the usefulness of biofilms. It starts by discussing the importance of biofilms for producing electricity and the process which is known as microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology. The next topic presents beneficial applications of biofilms to the environment. It includes bioremediation, nitrogen-fixing bacteria that make atmospheric nitrogen available to plants, and biofilm/bacteria use for recycling elements vital to life. Biofilms are also used to immobilize harmful materials, as biological pesticides, and for bioleaching to extract metals from their ores. The final section provides a description of how biofilms contribute to water treatment applications for pollutants such as plastics in our oceans, heavy metals, industrial wastes, oil spills, and sewage.

References

  1. 1.
    Dervisoglu, R. File: Solid oxide fuel cell protonic.svg. Date: May 2012. License: This work is in the public domain. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Solid_oxide_fuel_cell_protonic.svg.
  2. 2.
    Arizona State University (Jan 7, 2008) Fuel cell that uses bacteria to generate electricity. Science Daily. https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/01/080103101137.htm.
  3. 3.
    Wiley (June 27, 2017) Coating bacteria with electron-conducting polymer for microbial fuel-cells: Coating of individual bacterial cells with an electron-conducting polymer provides for a high-performance anode for microbial fuel-cell applications. Science Daily. https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/06/170627105323.htm.
  4. 4.
    Guy, M. F. C. (2010). File: Soil MFC.png. Date: September 1, 2010. License: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:SoilMFC.png.
  5. 5.
    KVDP. File: Plant microbial fuel cell.png. Date: April 23, 2010. License: This work is in the public domain. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Plant_Microbial_Fuel_Cell.png.
  6. 6.
    Chen, T., Barton, S. C., Binyamin, G., Gao, Z., Zhang, Y., Kim, H.-H., et al. (2001). A miniature biofuel cell. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 123(35), 8630–8631.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bullen, R. A., Arnot, T. C., Lakeman, J. B., & Walsh, F. C. (2006). Biofuel cells and their development. Biosensors & Bioelectronics, 21(11), 2015–2045.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Venkata Mohan, S., Veer Raghavulu, S., & Sarma, P. N. (2008). Biochemical evaluation of bioelectricity production process from anaerobic wastewater treatment in a single chambered microbial fuel cell (MFC) employing glass wool membrane. Biosensors & Bioelectronics, 23(9), 1326–1332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Venkata Mohan, S., Veer Raghavulu, S., & Sarma, P. N. (2008). Influence of anodic biofilm growth on bioelectricity production in single chambered mediatorless microbial fuel cell using mixed anaerobic consortia. Biosensors & Bioelectronics, 24(1), 41–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Liu, H., Grot, S., & Logan, B. E. (2005). Electrochemically assisted microbial production of hydrogen from acetate. Environmental Science and Technology, 39(11), 4317–4320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sleutels, T. H. J. A., Lodder, R., Hamelers, H. V. M., & Buisman, C. J. N. (2009). Improved performance of porous bio-anodes in microbial electrolysis cells by enhancing mass and charge transport. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 34(24), 9655–9661.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Winter, C.-J. (2005). Into the hydrogen energy economy-Milestones. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 30(7), 681–685.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Rizzi, F., Annunziata, E., Liberati, G., & Frey, M. (2014). Technological trajectories in the automotive industry: Are hydrogen technologies still a possibility? Journal of Cleaner Production, 66, 328–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Deretsky, Z. (National Science Foundation). File: Microbial electrolysis cell.png. Date: April 22, 2010. License: This work is in the public domain. It is a work of the U.S. federal government. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Microbial_electrolysis_cell.png.
  15. 15.
    Nevin, K. P., Woodard, T. L., Franks, A. E., Summers, Z. M., & Lovley, D. R. (2010). Microbial electrosynthesis: Feeding microbes electricity to convert carbon dioxide and water to multicarbon extracellular organic compounds. mBio, 1(2), e00103–e00110.  https://doi.org/10.1128/mbio.00103-10.
  16. 16.
    Johann Dreo, E. P. A. File: Nitrogen Cycle.svg. Date: September 27, 2009. License: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Nitrogen_Cycle.svg.
  17. 17.
    Kelvinsong. File: Cyanobacterium—inline.svg. Date: January 23, 2013. License: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Cyanobacterium-inline.svg.
  18. 18.
    Chandra, S., Sharma, R., Singh, K., et al. (2013). Application of bioremediation technology in the environment contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbon. Annals Microbiology, 63(2), 417–431.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lopez, A., Lazaro, N., Priego, J. M., & Marques, A. M. (2000). Effect of pH on the biosorption of nickel and other heavy metals by Pseudomonas fluorescens 4F39. Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, 24, 146–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Nanda, M., Kumar, V., & Sharma, D. K. (2019). Multimetal tolerance mechanisms in bacteria: The resistance strategies acquired by bacteria that can be exploited to clean-up heavy metal contaminants from water. Aquatic Toxicology, 212, 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    File: Enterobacter cloacae 01.png. License: This is the work of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. It is in the public domain. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Enterobacter_cloacae_01.png.
  22. 22.
    Rousseaux, C. (2011). Geobacter: The junk food connoisseurs of the bacterial kingdom. Department of Energy. https://www.energy.gov/articles/geobacter-junk-food-connoisseurs-bacterial-kingdom.
  23. 23.
    Bti for Mosquito Control (2016). EPA.gov. US EPA. 2016-07-05. Retrieved June 28, 2018.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Buckman, J., & Johnston, P. R. File: Bt-toxin-crystals.jpg. Date: December 19, 2006. License: This work is in the public domain. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Bt-toxin-crystals.jpg.
  25. 25.
    AZo Mining (2014). Bioleaching process—Mining fundamentals. https://www.azomining.com/Article.aspx?ArticleID=1095.
  26. 26.
    deOliveira, D. M., Sobral, L. G. S. Olson, G. J., Olson, S. B. (2014). Acid leaching of copper ore by sulphur-oxidizing microorganisms. Hydrometallurgy, 147–148, 223–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Richard, M. G. (2005). The pollution eating & power generating bacteria. treehugger. https://www.treehugger.com/renewable-energy/the-pollution-eating-power-generating-bacteria.html.
  28. 28.
    Sims, B. (2011). Researchers use bacterium to convert cellulose into n-butanol. Biomass Magazine. http://biomassmagazine.com/articles/7273/researchers-use-bacterium-to-convert-cellulose-into-n-butanol/?ref=brm.
  29. 29.
    Dincer, C., Bruch, R., Costa-Rama, E., Fernandez-Abedul, M. T. (2019). Disposable sensors in diagnostics, food, and environmental monitoring. Advanced Materials. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/adma.201806739.
  30. 30.
    Evans, J., & Periman, H. (USGS). File: watercyclesummary.jpg. Date: June 22, 2013. License: This work is in the public domain. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Watercyclesummary.jpg.
  31. 31.
    Anishct. File: HydrologicalCycle1.png. Date: October 19, 2010. License: This work is in the public domain. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:HydrologicalCycle1.png.
  32. 32.
    Gao, N. File: Zoogloea floc versus planktonic.tiff. Date: July 19, 2018. License: This work is in the public domain. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Zoogloea_floc_vs_planktonic.tiff.
  33. 33.
    Leonard, G. (at English Wikipedia). File: ESQUEMPEQUE-EN.jpg. Date: December 19, 2006. License: Creative Commons Attribution—Share Alike 2.5 Generic. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:ESQUEMPEQUE-EN.jpg.
  34. 34.
    Yayasan IDEP Foundation and Wastewater Gardens. File: SchemConstructedWetlandSewage.jpg. Date: January 1, 2000. License: This work is in the public domain. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:SchemConstructedWetlandSewage.jpg.
  35. 35.
    Marine Photobank. File: Oiled Bird-Black Sea Oil Spill 111207.jpg. Date: November 12, 2007. License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Oiled_Bird_-_Black_Sea_Oil_Spill_111207.jpg.
  36. 36.
    Martins, V. A. P., et al. (2008). Genomic insights into oil biodegradation in marine systems. In Microbial biodegradation: Genomics and molecular biology. Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-904455-17-2.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Yuki, K. (2002). Predominant growth of Alcanivorax strains in oil-contaminated and nutrient-supplemented sea water. Environmental Microbiology, 4(3), 141–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Yakimov, M. M., Timmis, K. N., & Golyshin, P. N. (2007). Obligate oil—degrading marine bacteria. Current Opinion in Biotechnology, 18(3), 257–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Schneiker, S., et al. (2006). Genome sequence of the ubiquitous hydrocarbon- degrading marine bacterium Alcanivorax borkumensis. Nature Biotechnology, 24(8), 997–1004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Kasai, Y., Kishira, H., & Harayama, S. (2002). Bacteria belonging to the genus Cycloclasticus play a primary role in the degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons released in a marine environment. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 68(11), 5625–5633.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Garrity, G.M., Bell, J.A., & Liburn, T. (2015). Oceanospirillales ord. nov. In W. B. Whitman (Ed.), Bergey’s manual of systematics of archaea and bacteria (p. 1).  https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118960608.obm00100.
  42. 42.
    NASA/Jodi Switzer Blum. File: GFAJ-1 (grown on arsenic).jpg. Date: 2010. License: This file is in the public domain. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:GFAJ-1_(grown_on_arsenic).jpg.
  43. 43.
    Muntaka Chasant. File: Plastic Pollution in Ghana.jpg. Date: October 3, 2018. License: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Plastic_Pollution_in_Ghana.jpg.
  44. 44.
    Yoshida, S., Hiraga, K., Takehana, T., et al. (2016). A bacterium that degrades and assimilates poly (ethylene terephthalate). Science, 351(6278), 1196–1199.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aad6359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Tanasupawat, S., Takehana, T., Yoshida, S., Hiraga, K., Oda, K. (2016). Ideonella sakaiensis sp. nov., isolated from a microbial consortium that degrades poly (ethylene terephthalate). International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, 66(8), 2813–2818.  https://doi.org/10.1099/ijsem.0.001058.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Zhang, H., Walker, T. R., Davis, E., Ma, G. (September 2019). Ecological risk assessment of metals in small craft harbour sediments in Nova Scotia, Canada. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 146, 466–475. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0025326X19305144?via%3Dihub.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    File: CadmiumMetalUSGOV.jpg. License: This work is in the public domain. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:CadmiumMetalUSGOV.jpg.
  48. 48.
    Daisley, B. A., Monachese, M., Trinder, M., Bisanz, J. E., Chmiel, J. A., Burton, J. P., et al. (2019). Immobilization of cadmium and lead by Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 mitigates apical-to-basolateral heavy metal translocation in a Caco-2 model of the intestinal epithelium. Gut Microbes, 10(3), 321–333.  https://doi.org/10.1080/19490976.2018.1526581.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Chelliaiah, E. R. (2018). Cadmium (heavy metals) bioremediation by Pseudomonas aerugnosa: A minireview. Applied Water Science, 8(154).  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13201-018-0796-5.
  50. 50.
    Bionerd. File: Pouring liquid mercury bionerd.jpg. Date: 2008. License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 unported. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Pouring_liquid_mercury_bionerd.jpg.
  51. 51.
    Outten, F. W., Outten, C. E., & O’Halloran, T. (2000). Metalloregulatory systems at the interface between bacterial metal homeostasis and resistance. In G. Storz & R. Hengge-Aronis (Eds.), Bacterial stress responses (pp. 145–157). Washington, D.C: ASM Press.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    von Canstein, H., Li, Y., Timmis, K. N., Deckwer, W.-D., & Wagner-Döbler, I. (1999). Removal of mercury from chloralkali electrolysis wastewater by a mercury-resistant Pseudomonas putida strain. Applied and Environment Microbiology, 65, 5279–5284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    White, C., & Gadd, G. M. (1998). Accumulation and effects of cadmium on sulphate-reducing bacterial biofilms. Microbiology, 144, 1407–1415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Azizi, S., Kamika, I., & Tekere, M. (2016). Evaluation of heavy metal removal from wastewater in a modified packed bed biofilm reactor. PLoS ONE, 11(5), e0155462.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0155462.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Wagner-Döbler, I., Lünsdorf, H., von Lübbenhüsen, T., Canstein, H. F., & Li, Y. (2000). Structure and species composition of mercury-reducing biofilms. Applied and Environment Microbiology, 66, 4559–4563.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Chemical Elements. File: Lead-2.jpg. Date: March 5, 2016. License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 unported. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Lead-2.jpg.
  57. 57.
    Nies, D. H. (1999). Microbial heavy-metal resistance. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 51, 730–750.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Templeton, A. S., Trainor, T. P., Traina, S. J., Spormann, A. M., & Brown, G. E., Jr. (2001). Pb (II) distributions at biofilm-metal oxide interfaces. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 98, 11897–11901.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Kazy, S. K., Sar, P., Singh, S. P., Sen, A. K., & D’Souza, S. F. (2002). Extracellular polysaccharides of a copper-sensitive and a copper-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain: Synthesis, chemical nature and copper binding. World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology, 18, 583–588.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Materials Science and EngineeringNational Institute of Technology (KOSEN)Shiroko-cho, SuzukaJapan
  2. 2.Department of Electrical and Computer EngineeringClarkson UniversityPotsdamUSA

Personalised recommendations