Advertisement

An RTP Extension for Reliable User-Data Transmission over VoIP Traffic

  • Jinbao Gao
  • Yuanzhang Li
  • Hongwei Jiang
  • Lu Liu
  • Xiaosong ZhangEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the Communications in Computer and Information Science book series (CCIS, volume 1095)

Abstract

Covert channels are those breaking the restrictions of the legitimate channel and transmitting covert messages secretly. According to the modulation methods, the covert channels are separated into two types, which are the covert storage channel and the covert timing channel. Since the covert storage channel modulates a covert message into the shared storage space, both capacity and throughput exceed the covert timing channel, which guarantees the effectiveness of covert communication. In this paper, a covert storage channel over RTP is proposed and evaluated. Since mobile multimedia communication requires low transmission latency, the RTP based on UDP is widely utilized by VoIP applications. Through modifying the packet layout of RTP packets and embedding secret message sections into the target position, the covert message could be delivered to the receiver. However, since the RTP is not a reliable protocol, the transmission procedure could be infected by the network noise. To solve this, a transmission control mechanism with retransmission is designed for the scheme. Besides, the secret message is also encrypted with a secure encryption algorithm, which prevents message leakage. To evaluate the scheme, several experiments are deployed, and the scheme is proved to be reliable and secure.

Keywords

Covert storage channel RTP Reliable protocol VoIP 

Notes

Acknowledgment

This work is supported by the National Key R&D Program of China (No. 2018YFB1004402), the Beijing Municipal Natural Science Foundation (No. 4172053).

References

  1. 1.
    Zhang, X., Tan, Y., Liang, C., Li, Y., Li, J.: A covert channel over VoLTE via adjusting silence periods. Access IEEE 6, 9292–9302 (2018).  https://doi.org/10.1109/acces-s.2018.2802783CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Tuptuk, N., Hailes, S.: Covert channel attacks in pervasive computing. In: 2015 IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications (PerCom), pp. 236–242, St. Louis, MO, USA (2015).  https://doi.org/10.1109/percom.2015.7146534
  3. 3.
    Rezaei, F., Hempel, M., Shrestha, P., Sharif, H.: Achieving robustness and capacity gains in covert timing channels. In: 2014 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), pp. 969–974. IEEE, Sydney (2014).  https://doi.org/10.1109/icc.2014.6-883445
  4. 4.
    Denney, K., Uluagac, A., Akkaya, K., Bhansali, S.: A novel storage covert channel on wearable devices using status bar notifications. In: 2016 13th IEEE Annual Consumer Communications & Networking Conference (CCNC). IEEE, Las Vegas (2016).  https://doi.org/10.1109/ccnc.2016.7444898
  5. 5.
    Epishkina, A., Kogos, K.: Covert channels parameters evaluation using the information theory statements. In: 2015 5th International Conference on IT Convergence and Security (ICITCS). IEEE Press, Kuala Lumpur (2015).  https://doi.org/10.1109/icitcs.2015.7-292966
  6. 6.
    Singh, A., Manchanda, K.: Establishment of bit selective mode storage covert channel in VA-NETS. In: 2015 IEEE International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Computing Research (ICCIC). IEEE Press, Madurai (2015).  https://doi.org/10.1109/icc-ic.2015.7435732
  7. 7.
    Liang, C., Wang, X., Zhang, X., Zhang, Y., Sharif, K., Tan, Y.: A payload-dependent packet rearranging covert channel for mobile VoIP traffic. Inf. Sci. 465, 162–173 (2018).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ins.2018.07.011CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Liang, C., Tan, Y., Zhang, X., Wang, X., Zheng, J., Zhang, Q.: Building packet length covert channel over mobile VoIP traffics. J. Netw. Comput. Appl. 118, 144–153 (2018).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnca.2018.06.012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Archibald, R., Ghosal, D.: A covert timing channel based on fountain codes. In: 2012 IEEE 11th International Conference on Trust, Security and Privacy in Computing and Communications. IEEE Press, Liverpool (2012).  https://doi.org/10.1109/trustcom.2012.21
  10. 10.
    Chaari, H., Mnif, K., Kamoun, L.: Multimedia quality transmission evaluation over wireless networks: a survey. Wirel. Netw. 22, 2607–2621 (2016).  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11276-015-1127-5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hovhannisyan, H., Qi, W., Lu, K., Yang, R., Wang, J.: Whispers in the cloud storage: a novel cross-user deduplication-based covert channel design. Peer-to-Peer Netw. Appl. 11, 277–286 (2018).  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12083-016-0483-yCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Archibald, R., Ghosal, D.: Design and analysis of a model-based Covert Timing Channel for Skype traffic. In: 2015 IEEE Conference on Communications and Network Security (CNS). IEEE Press, Florence (2015).  https://doi.org/10.1109/cns.2015.7346833
  13. 13.
    Garcia, L., Senyondo, H., McLaughlin, S., Zonouz, S.: Covert channel communication through physical interdependencies in cyber-physical infrastructures. In: 2014 IEEE International Conference on Smart Grid Communications (SmartGridComm). IEEE Press, Venice (2014).  https://doi.org/10.1109/smartgridcomm.2014.7007771
  14. 14.
    Elsadig, M., Fadlalla, Y.: A balanced approach to eliminate packet length-based covert channels. In: 2017 4th IEEE International Conference on Engineering Technologies and Applied Sciences (ICETAS). IEEE Press, Salmabad (2017).  https://doi.org/10.1109/ice-tas.2017.8277839
  15. 15.
    El-Atawy, A., Duan, Q., Al-Shaer, E.: A novel class of robust covert channels using out-of-order packets. IEEE Trans. Dependable and Secure Comput. 14(2), 116–129 (2017).  https://doi.org/10.1109/tdsc.2015.2443779CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lin, Y., Malik, S., Bilal, K., Yang, Q., Wang, Y., Khan, S.: Designing and modeling of covert channels in operating systems. IEEE Trans. Comput. 65(6), 1706–1719 (2016).  https://doi.org/10.1109/tc.2015.2458862CrossRefMathSciNetzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Shrestha, P., Hempel, M., Sharif, H., Chen H.: An event-based unified system model to characterize and evaluate timing covert channels. IEEE Syst. J. 10(1) (2016).  https://doi.org/10.1109/jsyst.2014.2328665
  18. 18.
    Mazurczyk, W., Karaś, M., Szczypiorski, K., Janicki, A.: YouSkyde: information hiding for Skype video traffic. Multimedia Tools Appl. 75(21), 13521–13540 (2016).  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11042-015-2740-0CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Tan, Y., Zhang, X., Sharif, K., Liang, C., Zhang, Q., Li, Y.: Covert timing channels for IoT over mobile networks. IEEE Wirel. Commun. 25(6), 38–44 (2018).  https://doi.org/10.1109/mwc.2017.1800062CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Zhang, X., Liang, C., Zhang, Q., Li, Y., Zheng, J., Tan, Y.: Building covert timing channels by packet rearrangement over mobile networks. Inf. Sci. 445–446, 66–78 (2018).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ins.2018.03.007CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Zhang, X., Zhu, L., Wang, X., Zhang, C., Zhu, H., Tan, Y.: A packet-reordering covert channel over VoLTE voice and video traffics. J. Netw. Comput. Appl. 126, 29–38 (2019).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnca.2018.11.001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Zhang, Q., Gong, H., Zhang, X., Liang, C., Tan, Y.: A sensitive network jitter measurement for covert timing channels over interactive traffic. Multimedia Tools Appl. 78(3), 3493–3509 (2019).  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11042-018-6281-1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Tan, Y., Xu, X., Liang, C., Zhang, X., Zhang, Q., Li, Y.: An end-to-end covert channel via packet dropout for mobile networks. Int. J. Distrib. Sensor Netw. 14(5) (2018).  https://doi.org/10.1177/155014771877956-8

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jinbao Gao
    • 1
  • Yuanzhang Li
    • 1
  • Hongwei Jiang
    • 1
  • Lu Liu
    • 1
  • Xiaosong Zhang
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.School of Computer ScienceBeijing Institute of TechnologyBeijingChina
  2. 2.Department of Computer Science and TechnologyTangshan UniversityTangshanChina

Personalised recommendations