Prolonging of Life Cycle and Its Implications

  • Zakir Husain


The chapter commences with a discussion of the concept of ageing. It then examines global trends in ageing to identify the major issues generated by this demographic change:
  1. 1.

    Supporting older people in retirement

  2. 2.


  3. 3.

    Long-term care

  4. 4.

    Age-sensitive urban planning


India is one of the countries that has been ageing rapidly, and—once the demographic dividend ends—this will emerge as a major social and policy challenge. The need to ensure adequate healthcare for the aged, provide them with economic security, tackle issues related to feminization of the aged, and plan appropriate government responses to the potential crisis will become major challenges faced by the future Indian society.

The study examines whether active ageing is occurring in India, and to what extent the aged are engaged in the labour market. This generates the primary research question of the study, that is, ‘Do the aged age actively in India?’ This can be decomposed into the following questions:
  1. 1.

    What is the extent of labour market engagement of elderly?

  2. 2.

    What is the nature and gender difference in such engagement?

  3. 3.

    What is the net economic contribution of the elderly?

  4. 4.

    Does it vary across expenditure group, or household type, or socio-religious groups?

  5. 5.

    What are the determinants of gross and net financial contribution of elderly?

  6. 6.

    What is the time use pattern of aged? Are there gender differences in time use patterns? This provides information on the extent to which active ageing is occurring.


The study uses data from National Sample Survey Office surveys; two rounds (55th and 68th) are used. They are supplemented by a primary survey of aged in Bhubaneswar, Kolkata, and Ranchi in eastern India, a region projected to experience rapid ageing.


Ageing Active ageing Healthy ageing Implications of ageing Health burden of ageing India 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zakir Husain
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of EconomicsPresidency UniversityKolkataIndia

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