Measurement, Analysis, and Remediation of Bisphenol-A from Environmental Matrices

  • Sukanya Krishnan
  • Ansaf V. Karim
  • Swatantra Pratap Singh
  • Amritanshu ShriwastavEmail author
Part of the Energy, Environment, and Sustainability book series (ENENSU)


Bisphenol-A (BPA) is one of the important emerging contaminants, which has been widely used as a raw material for the preparation of epoxy and polycarbonate. They are mainly present in our daily use products such as the lining of water containers, canned food and beverages, infant bottles, and medical devices due to its heat resistance and elasticity property. BPA is an alkyl phenol, find its primary route to environmental matrices by leaching out from the final consumer product containers or during the manufacturing process. The various factors responsible for leaching of BPA include temperature, the presence of acids, and storage time. It is an endocrine disruptor and causes an adverse impact on humans as well as aquatic organisms. Therefore, many countries have banned their usage, especially in infant bottles and other food containers. Conventional wastewater treatment technologies have been inefficient for degrading these type of persistent compounds. Advanced treatment techniques are sustainable approaches for the removal of persistent compounds from water. Further, the measurement and analysis of BPA and their conjugates requires sophisticated analytical instrumentation. This chapter provides a detailed review of available measurement and analysis methods for determination of bisphenol-A. Further, the chapter also reviews the various treatment technologies for the removal of BPA from environmental matrices.


Bisphenol-A Toxicity Measurement Remediation 


  1. Acosta R, Nabarlatz D, Sánchez-Sánchez A, Jagiello J, Gadonneix P, Celzard A, Fierro V (2018) Adsorption of Bisphenol A on KOH-activated tyre pyrolysis char. J Environ Chem Eng 6:823–833. Scholar
  2. Alnaimat AS, Barciela-Alonso MC, Bermejo-Barrera P (2019) Determination of bisphenol A in tea samples by solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Microchem J. Scholar
  3. Aristiawan Y, Aryana N, Putri D, Styarini D (2015) Analytical method development for bisphenol a in Tuna by using high performance liquid chromatography-UV. Procedia Chem 16:202–208. Scholar
  4. Bautista-Toledo I, Ferro-García MA, Rivera-Utrilla J, Moreno-Castilla C, Fernández FJV (2005) Bisphenol A removal from water by activated carbon. Effects of carbon characteristics and solution chemistry. Environ Sci Technol 39:6246–6250. Scholar
  5. Bertanza G, Pedrazzani R, Papa M, Mazzoleni G, Steimberg N, Caimi L, Montani C, Dilorenzo D (2010) Removal of BPA and NPnEOs from secondary effluents of municipal WWTPs by means of ozonation. Ozone Sci Eng 32:204–208. Scholar
  6. Bing-zhi D, Hua-qiang C, Lin W, Sheng-ji X, Nai-yun G (2010) The removal of bisphenol A by hollow fiber microfiltration membrane. Desalination 250:693–697. Scholar
  7. Chakma S, Moholkar VS (2014) Investigations in synergism of hybrid advanced oxidation processes with combinations of sonolysis + fenton process + UV for degradation of bisphenol A. Ind Eng Chem Res 53:6855–6865. Scholar
  8. Cheng JR, Wang K, Yu J, Yu, ZX, Yu ZB. Zhang Z (2018) Distribution and fate modeling of 4-nonylphenol, 4-t-octylphenol, and bisphenol A in the Yong River of China. Chemosphere 195:594–605. Scholar
  9. Chen W, Zou C, Liu Y, Li X (2017) The experimental investigation of bisphenol A degradation by Fenton process with different types of cyclodextrins. J Ind Eng Chem 56:428–434. Scholar
  10. Chiang K, Lim TM, Tsen L, Lee CC (2004) Photocatalytic degradation and mineralization of bisphenol A by TiO2 and platinized TiO2. Appl. Catal. A Gen. 261:225–237. Scholar
  11. Clark CJ, Cooper AT, Martin CL, Pipkin L (2012) Evaluation of Potential Degradation of Bisphenol A by Zero-Valent Iron (ZVI). Environ Forensics 13:248–254. Scholar
  12. Coughlin JL, Winnik B, Buckley B (2011) Measurement of bisphenol A, bisphenol A -d-glucuronide, genistein, and genistein 4′—D-glucuronide via SPE and HPLC-MS/MS. Anal Bioanal Chem 401:995–1002. Scholar
  13. Cydzik-Kwiatkowska A, Bernat K, Zielińska M, Bułkowska K, Wojnowska-Baryła I (2017) Aerobic granular sludge for bisphenol A (BPA) removal from wastewater. Int Biodeterior Biodegrad 122:1–11. Scholar
  14. Da Oh W, Lok LW, Veksha A, Giannis A, Lim TT (2018) Enhanced photocatalytic degradation of bisphenol A with Ag-decorated S-doped g-C3N4 under solar irradiation: performance and mechanistic studies. Chem Eng J 333:739–749. Scholar
  15. Dasssi D, Prieto A, Zouari-Mechichi H, Martínez MJ, Nasri M, Mechichi T (2016) Degradation of bisphenol A by different fungal laccases and identification of its degradation products. Int Biodeterior Biodegrad 110:181–188. Scholar
  16. Deborde M, Rabouan S, Mazellier P, Duguet JP, Legube B (2008) Oxidation of bisphenol A by ozone in aqueous solution. Water Res 42:4299–4308. Scholar
  17. Dehghani MH, Ghadermazi M, Bhatnagar A, Sadighara P, Jahed-Khaniki G, Heibati B, McKay G (2016) Adsorptive removal of endocrine disrupting bisphenol a from aqueous solution using chitosan. J Environ Chem Eng 4:2647–2655. Scholar
  18. Dekant W, Völkel W (2008) Human exposure to bisphenol A by biomonitoring: methods, results and assessment of environmental exposures. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 228:114–134. Scholar
  19. Deng Y, Zhao R (2015) Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) in wastewater treatment. Curr Pollut Reports 1:167–176. Scholar
  20. Dong Y, Wu D, Chen X, Lin Y (2010) Adsorption of bisphenol A from water by surfactant-modified zeolite. J Colloid Interface Sci 348:585–590. Scholar
  21. Dükkancı M (2019) Heterogeneous sonocatalytic degradation of Bisphenol-A and the influence of the reaction parameters and ultrasonic frequency. Water Sci Technol 79:386–397. Scholar
  22. Eio EJ, Kawai M, Tsuchiya K, Yamamoto S, Toda T (2014) Biodegradation of bisphenol A by bacterial consortia. Int Biodeterior Biodegrad 96:166–173. Scholar
  23. Escalona I, de Grooth J, Font J, Nijmeijer K (2014) Removal of BPA by enzyme polymerization using NF membranes. J Memb Sci 468:192–201. Scholar
  24. Ferro Orozco AM, Lobo CC, Contreras EM, Zaritzky NE (2013) Biodegradation of bisphenol-A (BPA) in activated sludge batch reactors: Analysis of the acclimation process. Int Biodeterior Biodegrad 85:392–399. Scholar
  25. Ferro Orozco AM, Contreras EM, Zaritzky NE (2016) Biodegradation of bisphenol A and its metabolic intermediates by activated sludge: Stoichiometry and kinetics analysis, Int. Biodeterior. Biodegrad 106:1–9. Scholar
  26. Gao B, Lim TM, Subagio DP, Lim TT (2010) Zr-doped TiO2 for enhanced photocatalytic degradation of bisphenol A. Appl Catal A Gen 375:107–115. Scholar
  27. Garoma T, Matsumoto S (2009) Ozonation of aqueous solution containing bisphenol A: effect of operational parameters. J Hazard Mater 167:1185–1191. Scholar
  28. Gattullo CE, Bährs H, Steinberg CEW, Loffredo E (2012) Removal of bisphenol A by the freshwater green alga Monoraphidium braunii and the role of natural organic matter. Sci Total Environ 416:501–506. Scholar
  29. Geens T, Roosens L, Neels H, Covaci A (2009) Assessment of human exposure to Bisphenol-A, Triclosan and Tetrabromobisphenol-A through indoor dust intake in Belgium. Chemosphere 76:755–760. Scholar
  30. Geens T, Goeyens L, Covaci A (2011) Are potential sources for human exposure to bisphenol-A overlooked? Int J Hyg Environ Health 214:339–347. Scholar
  31. Han W, Luo L, Zhang S (2012) Adsorption of bisphenol A on lignin: Effects of solution chemistry. Int J Environ Sci Technol 9:543–548. Scholar
  32. Han Q, Wang H, Dong W, Liu T, Yin Y, Fan H (2015) Degradation of bisphenol A by ferrate(VI) oxidation: kinetics, products and toxicity assessment. Chem Eng J 262:34–40. Scholar
  33. He PJ, Zheng Z, Zhang H, Shao LM, Tang QY (2009) PAEs and BPA removal in landfill leachate with Fenton process and its relationship with leachate DOM composition. Sci Total Environ 407:4928–4933. Scholar
  34. Heran M, Seyhi B, Azaïs A, Drogui P, Buelna G (2013) Contribution of a submerged membrane bioreactor in the treatment of synthetic effluent contaminated by Bisphenol-A: mechanism of BPA removal and membrane fouling. Environ Pollut 180:229–235. Scholar
  35. Hu C, Huang D, Zeng G, Cheng M, Gong X, Wang R, Xue W, Hu Z, Liu Y (2018) The combination of Fenton process and Phanerochaete chrysosporium for the removal of bisphenol A in river sediments: mechanism related to extracellular enzyme, organic acid and iron. Chem Eng J 338:432–439. Scholar
  36. Kamaraj M, Ranjith KS, Sivaraj R, Rajendra Kumar RT, Abdul Salam H (2014) Photocatalytic degradation of endocrine disruptor Bisphenol-A in the presence of prepared Ce x Zn1-xO nanocomposites under irradiation of sunlight. J Environ Sci 26:2362–2368. Scholar
  37. Kang JH, Kondo F (2002) Bisphenol A degradation by bacteria isolated from river water. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 43:265–269. Scholar
  38. Keykavoos R, Mankidy R, Ma H, Jones P, Soltan J (2013) Mineralization of bisphenol A by catalytic ozonation over alumina. Sep Purif Technol 107:310–317. Scholar
  39. Koduru JR, Lingamdinne LP, Singh J, Choo KH (2016) Effective removal of bisphenol-A (BPA) from water using a goethite/activated carbon composite. Process Saf Environ Prot 103:87–96. Scholar
  40. Kuo CY, Wu CH, Lin HY (2010) Photocatalytic degradation of bisphenol A in a visible light/TiO2 system. Desalination 256:37–42. Scholar
  41. Kuruto-Niwa R, Tateoka Y, Usuki Y, Nozawa R (2007) Measurement of bisphenol A concentrations in human colostrum. Chemosphere 66:1160–1164. Scholar
  42. Kusuma HS, Mahfud M (2017) GC-MS analysis of essential oil of Pogostemon cablin growing in Indonesia extracted by microwave-assisted hydrodistillation. Int Food Res J 24:1525–1528Google Scholar
  43. Kusvuran E, Yildirim D (2013) Degradation of bisphenol A by ozonation and determination of degradation intermediates by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Chem Eng J 220:6–14. Scholar
  44. Kwon J, Lee B (2015) Bisphenol A adsorption using reduced graphene oxide prepared by physical and chemical reduction methods. Chem Eng Res Des 104:519–529. Scholar
  45. Lai C, Wang MM, Zeng GM, Liu YG, Huang DL, Zhang C, Wang RZ, Xu P, Cheng M, Huang C, Wu HP, Qin L (2016) Synthesis of surface molecular imprinted TiO2/graphene photocatalyst and its highly efficient photocatalytic degradation of target pollutant under visible light irradiation. Appl Surf Sci 390:368–376. Scholar
  46. Lazim ZM, Hadibarata T, Puteh MH, Yusop Z (2015) Adsorption characteristics of bisphenol a onto low-cost modified phyto-waste material in aqueous solution, Water. Air Soil Pollut 226.
  47. Li R, Chen GZ, Tam NFY, Luan TG, Shin PKS, Cheung SG, Liu Y (2009) Toxicity of bisphenol A and its bioaccumulation and removal by a marine microalga Stephanodiscus hantzschii. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 72:321–328. Scholar
  48. Li X, Ying GG, Su HC, Yang XB, Wang L (2010) Simultaneous determination and assessment of 4-nonylphenol, bisphenol A and triclosan in tap water, bottled water and baby bottles. Environ Int 36:557–562. Scholar
  49. Li G, Zu L, Wong PK, Hui X, Lu Y, Xiong J, An T (2012) Biodegradation and detoxification of bisphenol A with one newly-isolated strain Bacillus sp. GZB: kinetics, mechanism and estrogenic transition, Bioresour Technol 114:224–230. Scholar
  50. Li J, Zhan Y, Lin J, Jiang A, Xi W (2014) Removal of bisphenol A from aqueous solution using cetylpyridinium bromide (CPB)-modified natural zeolites as adsorbents. Environ Earth Sci 72:3969–3980. Scholar
  51. Li S, Zhang G, Wang P, Zheng H, Zheng Y (2016) Microwave-enhanced Mn-Fenton process for the removal of BPA in water. Chem Eng J 294:371–379. Scholar
  52. Liao C, Kannan K (2011) Widespread occurrence of bisphenol A in paper and paper products: implications for human exposure. Environ Sci Technol 45:9372–9379. Scholar
  53. Liliana R, Slawomir G, Tomasz J, Joanna W, Andrzej P (2019) The effects of Bisphenol A (BPA) on sympathetic nerve fibers in the uterine wall of the domestic pig. Reprod Toxicol 84:39–48. Scholar
  54. Lin K, Liu W, Gan J (2009) Oxidative removal of bisphenol A by manganese dioxide: Efficacy, products, and pathways. Environ Sci Technol 43:3860–3864. Scholar
  55. Liu W, Zhang H, Cao B, Lin K, Gan J (2011) Oxidative removal of bisphenol A using zero valent aluminum-acid system. Water Res 45:1872–1878. Scholar
  56. Luo L, Yang Y, Xiao M, Bian L, Yuan B, Liu Y, Jiang F, Pan X (2015) A novel biotemplated synthesis of TiO2/wood charcoal composites for synergistic removal of bisphenol A by adsorption and photocatalytic degradation. Chem Eng J 262:1275–1283. Scholar
  57. Monteagudo JM, Chatzisymeon E, Davididou K, Durán A, Nelson R, Expósito AJ (2018) Photocatalytic degradation of bisphenol-A under UV-LED, blacklight and solar irradiation. J Clean Prod 203:13–21. Scholar
  58. Moriyoshi K, Sakai K, Ohmoto T, Yamanaka H, Ohe T (2008) Efficient microbial degradation of bisphenol a in the presence of activated carbon. J Biosci Bioeng 105:157–160. Scholar
  59. Neogy A, Rani S, Garg A, Singhania T, Sangal VK, Yadav SR, Singh A, Sharma S, Garg N (2019) Photocatalytic degradation of bisphenol-A using N, Co codoped TiO2 catalyst under solar light. Sci. Rep 9:1–13. Scholar
  60. Nguyen TB, Huang CP, Doong R (2019) Photocatalytic degradation of bisphenol A over a ZnFe2O4/TiO2 nanocomposite under visible light. Sci Total Environ 646:745–756. Scholar
  61. Noszczyńska M, Piotrowska-Seget Z (2018) Bisphenols: application, occurrence, safety, and biodegradation mediated by bacterial communities in wastewater treatment plants and rivers. Chemosphere 201:214–223. Scholar
  62. Ohko Y, Ando I, Niwa C, Tatsuma T, Yamamura T, Nakashima T, Kubota Y, Fujishima A (2001) Degradation of bisphenol A in water by TiO2 photocatalyst. Environ Sci Technol 35:2365–2368. Scholar
  63. Omoike A, Wacker T, Navidonski M (2013) Biodegradation of bisphenol A by Heliscus lugdunensis, a naturally occurring hyphomycete in freshwater environments. Chemosphere 91:1643–1647. Scholar
  64. Petrie B, Lopardo L, Proctor K, Youdan J, Barden R, Kasprzyk-Hordern B (2019) Assessment of bisphenol-A in the urban water cycle. Sci Total Environ 650:900–907. Scholar
  65. Qin FX, Jia SY, Liu Y, Li HY, Wu SH (2015) Adsorptive removal of bisphenol A from aqueous solution using metal-organic frameworks. Desalin Water Treat 54:93–102. Scholar
  66. Reddy PVL, Kim KH, Kavitha B, Kumar V, Raza N, Kalagara S (2018) Photocatalytic degradation of bisphenol A in aqueous media: a review. J Environ Manage 213:189–205. Scholar
  67. Rivas FJ, Encinas Á, Acedo B, Beltrán FJ (2009) Mineralization of bisphenol A by advanced oxidation processes. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 84:589–594. Scholar
  68. Saiyood S, Vangnai AS, Thiravetyan P, Inthorn D (2010) Bisphenol A removal by the Dracaena plant and the role of plant-associating bacteria. J Hazard Mater 178:777–785. Scholar
  69. Senthilkumar P, Sivamani S, Vasantharaj S, Mophin-Kani K, Vijayalakshmi V, Sivarajasekar N (2017) Bio-degradation of Bisphenol A by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAb1 isolated from effluent of thermal paper industry: kinetic modeling and process optimization. J Radiat Res Appl Sci 11:56–65. Scholar
  70. Seyhi B, Drogui P, Buelna G, Blais JF (2012) Removal of bisphenol-A from spiked synthetic effluents using an immersed membrane activated sludge process. Sep Purif Technol 87:101–109. Scholar
  71. Sharma J, Mishra IM, Dionysiou DD, Kumar V (2015) Oxidative removal of bisphenol a by uv-c/peroxymonosulfate (pms): Kinetics, influence of co-existing chemicals and degradation pathway. Chem Eng J 276:193–204. Scholar
  72. Siracusa JS, Yin L, Measel E, Liang S, Yu X (2018) Effects of bisphenol A and its analogs on reproductive health: a mini review. Reprod Toxicol 79:96–123. Scholar
  73. Soni H, Padmaja P (2014) Palm shell based activated carbon for removal of bisphenol A: an equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic study. J Porous Mater 21:275–284. Scholar
  74. Sun F, Kang L, Xiang X, Li H, Luo X, Luo R, Lu C, Peng X (2016) Recent advances and progress in the detection of bisphenol A. Anal Bioanal Chem 408:6913–6927. Scholar
  75. Sunasee S, Leong KH, Wong KT, Lee G, Pichiah S, Nah I, Jeon B-H, Yoon Y, Jang M (2017) Sonophotocatalytic degradation of bisphenol A and its intermediates with graphitic carbon nitride, Env. Sci Pollut Res. Scholar
  76. Sunasee S, Wong KT, Lee G, Pichiah S, Ibrahim S, Park C, Kim NC, Yoon Y, Jang M (2017b) Titanium dioxide-based sonophotocatalytic mineralization of bisphenol A and its intermediates. Environ Sci Pollut Res 24:15488–15499. Scholar
  77. Torres RA, Pétrier C, Combet E, Moulet F, Pulgarin C (2007) Bisphenol A mineralization by integrated ultrasound-UV-iron (II) treatment. Environ Sci Technol 41:297–302. Scholar
  78. Torres-Palma RA, Nieto JI, Combet E, Petrier C, Pulgarin C (2010) An innovative ultrasound, Fe2 + and TiO2 photoassisted process for bisphenol a mineralization. Water Res 44:2245–2252. Scholar
  79. Umar M, Roddick F, Fan L, Aziz HA (2013) Application of ozone for the removal of bisphenol A from water and wastewater—A review. Chemosphere 90:2197–2207. Scholar
  80. Vandenberg LN, Hauser R, Marcus M, Olea N, Welshons WV (2007) Human exposure to bisphenol A (BPA). Reprod Toxicol 24:139–177. Scholar
  81. Wang R, Ren D, Xia S, Zhang Y, Zhao J (2009) Photocatalytic degradation of Bisphenol A (BPA) using immobilized TiO2 and UV illumination in a horizontal circulating bed photocatalytic reactor (HCBPR). J Hazard Mater 169:926–932. Scholar
  82. Wirasnita R, Hadibarata T, Yusoff ARM, Yusop Z (2014) Removal of bisphenol a from aqueous solution by activated carbon derived from oil palm empty fruit bunch. Water Air Soil Pollut 225.
  83. Wojnowska-Baryła I, Bernat K, Bułkowska K, Zielińska M, Cydzik-Kwiatkowska A (2014) Removal of bisphenol A (BPA) in a nitrifying system with immobilized biomass. Bioresour Technol 171:305–313. Scholar
  84. Yang Y, Wang Z, Xie S (2014) Aerobic biodegradation of bisphenol A in river sediment and associated bacterial community change. Sci Total Environ 470–471:1184–1188. Scholar
  85. Yoo I-K, Cha GC, Choe WS, Ryu K, Kim EJ, Kim JY (2007) Degradation of bisphenol A and nonylphenol by nitrifying activated sludge. Process Biochem 42:1470–1474. Scholar
  86. Yu Q, Feng L, Chai X, Qiu X, Ouyang H, Deng G (2019) Enhanced surface fenton degradation of BPA in soil with a high pH. Chemosphere 335–343. Scholar
  87. Yüksel S, Kabay N, Yüksel M (2013) Removal of bisphenol A (BPA) from water by various nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membranes. J Hazard Mater 263:307–310. Scholar
  88. Zhang Y, Causserand C, Aimar P, Cravedi JP (2006) Removal of bisphenol A by a nanofiltration membrane in view of drinking water production. Water Res 40:3793–3799. Scholar
  89. Zhang J, Sun B, Guan X (2013) Oxidative removal of bisphenol A by permanganate: Kinetics, pathways and influences of co-existing chemicals. Sep Purif Technol 107:48–53. Scholar
  90. Zhang X, Li C, Pan J, Liu R, Cao Z (2019) Searching for a bisphenol A substitute: Effects of bisphenols on catalase molecules and human red blood cells. Sci Total Environ 669:112–119. Scholar
  91. Zhou Y, Chen L, Lu P, Tang X, Lu J (2011) Removal of bisphenol A from aqueous solution using modified fibric peat as a novel biosorbent. Sep Purif Technol 81:184–190. Scholar
  92. Zhou D, Yang J, Li H, Cui C, Yu Y, Liu Y, Lin K (2016) The chronic toxicity of bisphenol A to Caenorhabditis elegans after long-term exposure at environmentally relevant concentrations. Chemosphere 154:546–551. Scholar
  93. Zühlke MK, Schlüter R, Henning AK, Lipka M, Mikolasch A, Schumann P, Giersberg M, Kunze G, Schauer F (2016) A novel mechanism of conjugate formation of bisphenol A and its analogues by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens: detoxification and reduction of estrogenicity of bisphenols. Int Biodeterior Biodegrad 109:165–173. Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sukanya Krishnan
    • 1
  • Ansaf V. Karim
    • 1
  • Swatantra Pratap Singh
    • 1
  • Amritanshu Shriwastav
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Environmental Science and Engineering DepartmentIndian Institute of Technology BombayMumbaiIndia

Personalised recommendations