Quantification of Airborne Particulate and Associated Toxic Heavy Metals in Urban Indoor Environment and Allied Health Effects

  • Alfred J. LawrenceEmail author
  • Tahmeena Khan
Part of the Energy, Environment, and Sustainability book series (ENENSU)


The present chapter is an attempt to summarize the importance of indoor air quality, which can be considered as IAQ and to emphasize on the hazardous effects of particulate matter (PM) consisting of fine and ultrafine particles. Indoor air pollution is a leading cause of poor health outcome in India. Nano particles in indoor air have been linked to growing cardiovascular diseases and premature deaths in India. Metals are associated with particulate matter. Heavy metals are produced by non-exhaust discharges, fuel additives and by extraction processes. They are considered to be hazardous mainly because of their potential to produce reactive oxygen species in respiratory system. The purpose of this chapter is explained by a case study undertaken in Lucknow city where particulate matter (PM2.5, PM10) and associated heavy metals viz. Fe, Zn, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cu and Mn were analyzed in three microenvironments namely (1) well planned, (2) densely populated and (3) roadside, over a period of two years (2012–2014). Identification of the main sources of the heavy metals was done through principal component analysis. Calculation of enrichment factors was also done for heavy metals to know their source of origin. Human health is generally affected by the accumulation of pollutants in the body. Even though the hazardous effects of heavy metals are known, still there is limited knowledge on association of a disease with inhalation exposure, particularly in indoor environment. The issue needs more focus to understand the causes, harm and to recommend actions to check the emissions and lower the ill effects.


Indoor air Metals Particulate matter Urban emissions 



The authors greatly acknowledge Dr. (Mrs.) V. Prakash, Principal, Isabella Thoburn College and Prof. A.R. Khan, Head, Department of Chemistry, Integral University, Lucknow for their support.


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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ChemistryIsabella Thoburn CollegeLucknowIndia
  2. 2.Department of ChemistryIntegral UniversityLucknowIndia

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