Role of Microorganisms in Degradation and Removal of Anticonvulsant Drugs: A Review
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Over the past few years, large amounts of pharmaceutical compounds along with their active metabolites are emerging as environmental pollutants, which enters into water systems from different sources, such as sewage (human and animal excretion), landfill sites, wastewater from pharmaceutical industries and hospitals. In recent years the wide use of anticonvulsant drugs is one of the environmental concern due to its frequent use and determination in the environment. Anticonvulsant drugs and their metabolites are present in trace concentrations of µg L−1 to mg L−1 in water bodies. Biodegradation of these drug depends upon the different factors, such as physicochemical properties of drug, environmental factors (i.e. pH, light, temperature) and type of microbial strain. Different microbes like fungal strains (Cunninghamella elegans ATCC 9245, Umbelopsis ramanniana R-56) and Bacillus and Streptomyces species of bacteria have been reported with the ability to degrade pharmaceutical compounds via metabolic and metabolic pathways. This chapter summarizes the knowledge about biotransformation or biodegradation of anticonvulsant drugs and their metabolic pathways.
KeywordsBiodegradation Anticonvulsant drugs Microorganisms Metabolic pathways
The authors thank the financial support from Indian Institute of Technology (Indian School of Mines), Dhanbad under Junior Research Fellowship scheme funded by Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD).
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