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Socioeconomic Inequality and Student Outcomes in Canadian Schools

  • Alana ButlerEmail author
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Part of the Education Policy & Social Inequality book series (EPSI, volume 4)

Abstract

This chapter examines how income inequality in Canada has contributed to an “achievement gap” between students from lower and higher socioeconomic backgrounds in Canada. The impacts of socioeconomic inequality in the preschool and elementary years can lead to significant differences in academic achievement between children from affluent and lower income families. The chapter surveys existing research regarding low socioeconomic status and childhood academic outcomes and then explores structural and sociocultural factors associated with socioeconomic achievement gaps. Next, the chapter examines how cultural capital deficits directly affect access to postsecondary education. In conclusion, the chapter discusses some of the evidence-based interventions aimed at eliminating the socioeconomic achievement gap in Canadian schools.

Keywords

Student achievement Socioeconomic status Inequality Canada 

10.1 Introduction

The 2015 PISA results continued to highlight Canada’s high standing in terms of educational outcomes for its youths in comparison to other international jurisdictions. Since the inception of PISA in 2000, Canada has placed in the top 10 in each cycle across all three domains: Reading, Mathematics, and Science. The most recent results inspired the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) to call Canada an “education superpower” (Coughlan, 2017). These high levels of overall student performance have occurred in spite of Canada’s relatively high level of immigration (Cheng & Yan, 2018; Klinger, Volante, & Bilgili, 2018; Volante, Klinger, Siegel, & Bilgili, 2017). PISA results and other international comparative measures of student achievement have each illustrated that between-school variation in student performance is very low in Canada, reflecting a high level of educational equity (e.g., Coughlan, 2017; Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2016b). In spite of this overall relative success, the media and others have raised concerns about the lack of educational progress based on unchanging or decreasing PISA scores over time (e.g., Chu, 2017). Yet a review of PISA data demonstrates that very few high-performing countries have witnessed a growth in PISA scores over time (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2018a). Overall, the ongoing high levels of relative performance coupled with the low between-school variation found across PISA cycles do indeed illustrate that children in Canada benefit from high levels of education.

In most industrialized developed countries, there exists an academic achievement gap between the wealthiest and poorest students (e.g., Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2017; Parker, Marsh, Jerrim, Guo, & Dicke, 2018; Schmidt, Burroughs, Zoido, & Houang, 2015; UNESCO, 2014). The Council of Education Ministers, Canada (2018) found that Canada has the second most equitable education system with respect to socioeconomic status (SES). As an example, evidence from the United States indicates that low SES has a significant effect on educational achievement among children and youths (Ainsworth, 2002; Evans, 2004; Fagan, 2017; Hoxby & Turner, 2013). Canadian studies show that the gap between low versus high SES families is not as wide as it is in the United States, where there are larger geographical areas with a concentration of low SES populations (Burton, Phipps, & Zhang, 2013; Ward & Belanger, 2010). Clearly, Canada has been able to ameliorate some of the educational impacts of socioeconomic inequity observed in other highly industrialized developed countries. One important consideration is that 6.0% of Canada’s gross domestic product (GDP) is allocated to educational institutions, which is substantially higher than the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) average of 5.2% (Statistics Canada, 2017c). As a result, teaching in Canada is considered to be a valued profession and teachers are well compensated.

While there may be much to celebrate in terms of educational equity in Canada relative to many other international jurisdictions, educational inequities do indeed exist in Canada and these are associated with economic disadvantages. PISA results, and other measures of achievement throughout the country do highlight a relatively high level of within-school variation in Canada (e.g., Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2016b). These findings demonstrate that in spite of the high level of overall equity in terms of schooling, substantial portions of the student population do not equally benefit from such educational opportunities.

These inequities can be found amongst the provinces, between communities, and within schools, and in each instance, a fundamental difference appears to be associated with socioeconomic factors. Achievement differences due to income inequality have been identified in preschool and elementary children and evidence strongly suggests these early “achievement gaps” either remain stable or increase throughout, which contributes to differences in academic achievement in later years (Burton et al., 2013; Caro, McDonald, & Willms, 2009; Cleveland & Krashinsky, 2003; Finnie, Childs, & Wismer, 2011).

10.2 Provincial Jurisdiction of Education and the National Achievement Gap

In Canada, education is regulated by each province and territory, which in turn each develops its own curricula. As a result, there are some structural differences amongst the provinces (e.g., Klinger & Saab, 2012). Children begin formal schooling in Kindergarten in the year they turn 5. Ontario offers Junior and Senior Kindergarten. Students enter Grade 1 and continue their schooling until Grade 12 in all of the provinces except Quebec, where Grade 12 is replaced by the first year of the CEGEP (Collège dʼenseignement général et professionnel, and in English, College of General and Vocational Education). Schooling is typically divided into elementary and secondary components, although the grade at which the transition is made varies across provinces and many provinces further subdivide these two categories (e.g., primary and junior elementary, middle schools, junior and senior secondary). This transition typically occurs between Grades 7 and 9. The transition from primary to secondary is coupled with the shift from a single teacher to multiple subject area teachers. The vast majority of students attend publicly funded schools across Canada. These schools are non-sectarian, although Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Ontario provide full provincial funding for their religious-based Separate (most often Catholic) school systems. The secondary school graduation rate in Canada was 87% in 2015, slightly higher than the OECD average of 86% (Statistics Canada, 2017c).

While public schooling is free to all children, approximately 6% of children attend private schools in Canada, in which a portion or all of the student fees are paid for by the family (Frenette & Chan, 2015). These proportions vary by province, with the highest numbers attending private schools in Quebec, and much lower proportions in Alberta and Ontario, most likely due to the funding differences for Catholic education. While 94% of Canada’s children receive free public education until the completion of secondary school, postsecondary education, while indirectly subsidized by provincial governments, is not free to attend. In spite of the presence of tuition fees, Canadians report a high level of postsecondary education. The proportion of adults in Canada between the ages of 25 and 64 with postsecondary education is 57%, with 28.5% having a Bachelor’s degree or more, which is the highest among OECD countries (Statistics Canada, 2017c).

Nevertheless, these proportions vary by province, and these variations correlate with differences in educational measures. As an example, Table 10.1 illustrates the relationship between levels of education of adults and the PISA results of 15-year-olds for 2015. Acknowledging the error of measurement for the PISA 2015 scores varies by each province due to large differences in provincial sample sizes, and noting that the 2015 assessment had a primary focus on Science, these data illustrate positive correlations amongst the percentage of the provincial adult population (aged 25–64) where 0.55 was with Mathematics (1-tailed p <  0.05), 0.72 with Reading (p <  0.01), and 0.67 with Science (p <  0.05). The correlations were found to be slightly smaller for the percentage of the female adult population at 0.52 with Mathematics (p < 0.05), 0.71 with Reading (p <  0.01), and 0.65 with Science (p < 0.05). In contrast, correlations with other measures of provincial wealth such as median income and per capita GDP have insignificant correlations below 0.30 with PISA results.
Table 10.1

Provincial-level PISA results and % of population with Bachelor’s degree or more

Province

Pisa math

2015

Pisa reading

2015

PISA science

2015

% of adults with bachelor’s degree or more

% of females with bachelor’s degree or more

British Columbia

522

536

539

29.9

34.7

Alberta

511

533

541

28.2

30.7

Saskatchewan

484

496

496

22.5

25.9

Manitoba

489

498

499

25.2

28.4

Ontario

509

527

524

31.9

33.9

Quebec

544

532

537

25.5

28.0

New Brunswick

493

505

506

20.2

23.1

Nova Scotia

497

517

517

25.5

28.9

Prince Edward Is.

499

515

515

23.7

27.9

Newfoundland

486

505

506

18.3

20.9

Canada

516

527

528

28.5

30.9

Note Census data obtained from Statistics Canada (2017a, 2017b, 2017c, 2017d); Canadian PISA data obtained from O’Grady et al. (2016)

As noted previously, Canada has shown a relatively high level of educational equity. How does this compare to measures of economic inequity? The Gini coefficient is a measure of inequality of income distribution or inequality of wealth distribution. It is defined as a ratio with values between 0 and 1, in which 0 equates to every individual in a society having the same income, and 1 representing complete inequality (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2006). Based on most recently available statistics, Canada has an after-tax Gini Coefficient of 0.306 (Statistics Canada, 2018a). Canada ranks 7 out of 17 peer countries for income equality (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2018b). Breau (2015) found that income inequality between Canadian provinces was highly variable because of differing policy contexts, labor regulations, and taxation policies. Across all Canadian provinces, the highest income inequality was found in Newfoundland and Labrador, Alberta, Ontario, and British Columbia (Breau, 2015). Interestingly, the correlations amongst the Gini coefficient and the PISA results were lower and insignificant in comparison to the associations found for education levels of adults in each province. This may be partially explained by the relatively similar Gini coefficients found across the provinces, varying between 0.27 and 0.32. Thus, it appears that in Canada, broad measures of inequality are less predictive of children’s educational outcomes than measures related to adults (parents) and families and that measures related to education levels are the most predictive of educational outcomes. Who are these parents and families? And what are the barriers they face or the decisions they are making that may lead to the relatively high levels of observed within school variability in educational outcomes?

10.3 Between- and Within-School Variation

One of the challenges of large data sets is that they can often mask small but systematic differences. As an example, the Canadian PISA results have noted that the between-school variation in PISA results is small in Canada. Nevertheless, these same data have shown that 15-year-old students attending private schools attain higher PISA scores than their peers attending publicly funded schools, scoring 8–9% higher (Frenette & Chan, 2015). These are substantial differences (over 40 points) but the small proportion of children in private schools, and in the PISA sample, masks this substantial between-school effect. Interestingly, this observed inequity occurs along with a similar socioeconomic predictor. Specifically, the families of children in private schools have higher average incomes and are much more likely to have completed university education.

These same private school data provide an insight into the higher levels of observed within-school variation in educational outcomes found in Canada. Private schools tend to reflect relatively homogeneous populations in terms of social capital. In contrast, Canada’s public schools are much more heterogeneous given that 94% of children attend public schools. Thus, public schools across the country largely reflect the population of the country. Overall, the Canadian population is varied, certainly in terms of culture, as expected given the high rates of immigration in Canada, but also, and of relevance to our work here, in the dispersion of social and economic capital.

Which brings us back to the question of who are the parents and families who face economic disadvantages that may impact their children’s educational achievement and school engagement? According to the most recent Canadian census, 4.8 million Canadians live in poverty and 1.2 million Canadians under the age of 18 live in low-income households (Statistics Canada, 2017a). While Canada has no official definition of poverty, Statistics Canada defines low-income cut-offs (LICO) as income thresholds below which a family will likely devote 20 percentage points more of its income on the necessities of shelter, food, and clothing than the average family (Lightman & Gingrich, 2013; Satzewich & Liodakis, 2013). Hence Statistics Canada’s LICO figures serve as a proxy for poverty in Canada.

Three subgroups of the Canadian population appear to represent the greatest proportions of those falling below LICO thresholds. As found in other international jurisdictions, single-parental households are a strong predictor of socioeconomic inequality in Canada. The 19% of Canadian children living in a lone‑parent household are more than three times as likely to live in a low‑income household as children living in a two‑parent household (Statistics Canada, 2017a). In what has been termed the “feminization of poverty,” scholars have further noted that women face greater risks of poverty because of the male–female wage gap (Kwok & Wallis, 2008). Currently, there remains a gender pay gap between males and females in the Canadian labor market. Recent estimates are that women earn 74 cents for every dollar earned by a male (Statistics Canada, 2017c). Most of the variance in wages can be attributed to occupational sex segregation, since women tend to occupy lower paying, part-time, temporary positions more often than do males (Kwok & Wallis, 2008). In 2015, 18.9% of Canadian women were working part-time versus 5.5% of Canadian men (Statistics Canada, 2018b).

Approximately 21% of the Canadian population was born outside Canada (Statistics Canada, 2017b) and the visible minority population constitutes 22.3% of the total Canadian population. The majority of immigrants arrive as skilled immigrants through the federally regulated points system for immigration which allocates “points” for education, skills, language ability, and training. Despite this, many recent immigrants face barriers as they endeavor to enter the labor market due to official language fluency, foreign credential devaluation, and discrimination (Esses & Bhardwaj, 2006; Galabuzi, 2006; Lightman & Gingrich, 2013; Oreopoulos, 2011; Reitz, 2016). As a result, recent immigrants to Canada are also more likely to experience low SES (Picot & Hou, 2014).

Lastly, the Statistics Canada (2017b) census report indicated that the Indigenous population was 1,673,785 or 4.9% of the total Canadian population. Indigenous families living on reserves have the lowest standard of living in Canada (Statistics Canada, 2011, 2013). Current reserves in Canada have poor living conditions and many Indigenous families have low SES (Statistics Canada, 2013). Forty percent of off-reserve Indigenous persons live in poverty. A substantial proportion of Canada’s Indigenous population resides in “at-risk” communities. According to the 2011 National Household survey, only 9.8% of Indigenous persons held a university degree in contrast to the Canadian average of 27% and 36% had not completed high school (Statistics Canada, 2013). Statistics indicate that there is a large gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous persons for all levels of education. The 2016 Canadian census indicated that 28.5% of Canadians between the ages of 25 and 64 had a Bachelor’s degree or higher, while only 10.9% of Indigenous persons between the ages of 25 and 64 had a Bachelor’s degree or higher (Statistics Canada, 2017d). Indigenous persons living on reserves have lower educational attainment than those living off-reserves (Statistics Canada, 2017d).

Added to these three predominant groups facing economic disadvantages, other sub-populations, while smaller in number, have also been shown to face economic challenges at a much greater rate than the “averageˮ Canadian family. As an example, and consistent with U.S. findings, Black Canadians, especially those from low-income communities, have lower rates of high school completion and university degree attainment (Abada, Hou, & Ram, 2009; Caldas, Bernier, & Marceau, 2009; Dei, 2008; James & Turner, 2017; Livingstone & Weinfeld, 2017). Similar disadvantages are found for adults with disabilities.

10.4 Low SES and Childhood Educational Outcomes

Evidence shows that Canadian children from lower socioeconomic backgrounds tend to have higher secondary school drop-out rates, lower academic achievement at all levels of schooling, and more emotional and behavioral problems in school (Belley, Frenette, & Lochner, 2014; Evans, 2004; Ferguson, Bovaird, & Mueller, 2007; Portnow & Hussain, 2016; Shaker, 2014). In Canada, some of the evidence to support these claims comes from longitudinal studies. An analysis of the most recent cycle from Statistics Canada’s National Longitudinal Study of Children and Youth (19942008) showed that children from affluent socioeconomic backgrounds score better academically on the CAT/2 standardized math test than children from economically disadvantaged backgrounds (Burton et al., 2013). The researchers noted that over 50% of children from low-income Canadian households had below-average math scores whereas 33% of children from high-income households scored below-average (Burton et al., 2013). Caro et al. (2009) used the same national data set to show that the academic achievement gap between low and high SES students was stable from ages 7 through 11, but widened between the ages of 11–15. They concluded that the advantages of high SES constitute a cumulative advantage that widens the gap over time (Caro et al., 2009).

As further evidence, Roos et al. (2006) conducted a longitudinal study using data from the Population Health Research Data Repository located in the province of Manitoba. The researchers studied all children born in the province in 1984 using 18 years of data that included standardized test results. They found that the standard examination pass rates of those students living in the poorest neighborhoods were less than half that of those living in the wealthiest neighborhoods (Roos et al., 2006). Similar results have been found across provincial testing programs in British Columbia and Ontario, in which associated demographic data are available. As one example, in Ontario, students from families earning less than $30,000 per year score 20–30% lower on the Grade 3 math and literacy tests than families who earn more than $100,000 per year (Education Quality and Accountability Office, 2017).

The previously discussed sub-populations of single parent, immigrant, and Indigenous families provide further insights into these relationships and some of the ongoing challenges and opportunities to address the impact of these inequities. In a cross-national study of PISA scores among 17 countries, Garriga and Martínez-Lucena (2018) found that growing up in a single-parent household had a negative effect on academic achievement in most developed countries. Research findings indicated that Canadian children who grow up in single-parent households are more likely to have academic, behavioral, and psychological problems (Ward & Belanger, 2010). The proportions of single-parent families vary across provinces and perhaps surprisingly, these proportions are moderately correlated with provincial PISA results, −0.58 with mathematics (p <  0.05), −0.65 with science (p < 0.05), and −0.70 with reading. These values are comparable to the correlations found between PISA results and the proportion of adults with a Bachelor’s degree or more. The 0.68 correlation between single-parent households and adult education levels (0.65 for education levels of females) suggest a substantial level of shared variance.

While PISA results are not subdivided based on indigeneity, data from provincial assessment systems highlight the association of these socioeconomic and educational data with Indigenous children’s educational achievement. For example, 2016–2017 data from the Foundation Skills Assessment (FSA) in British Columbia indicated that 35% of Aboriginal students failed to meet provincial standards for fourth-grade reading comprehension. For non-Aboriginals the percentage was 18% (British Columbia Ministry of Education, 2017). For numeracy, the percentage of Aboriginal test takers not meeting provincial standards was 45% compared to 23% for non-Aboriginal students (British Columbia Ministry of Education, 2017). While not all provinces obtain Aboriginal/Indigenous status from students in relation to their provincial testing programs, those that do highlight similar achievement gaps (e.g., Ontario, Quebec).

Educational achievement gaps between Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples are recognized as a critical issue and a policy challenge in the Canadian context. Indigenous children and their families continue to face barriers to achievement at all levels, including access to postsecondary education. While measures highlighting economic disadvantages may be associated with the observed achievement gaps, they also hide much deeper issues that need to be addressed to resolve ongoing inequities and societal challenges. For example, funding for federally run schools for Indigenous communities is less than provincially funded schools, even when factoring in higher Northern or remote operating costs (Blatchford, 2016; Statistics Canada, 2013). Historical oppressions arising from colonialism have contributed to intergenerational poverty among Canada’s Indigenous peoples. The reserve system in the 1800s, followed by the system of forced residential schooling that separated children from their families—the “Sixties Scoop” of forced adoptions—and other injustices have resulted in intergenerational trauma. This history of intergenerational trauma related to residential schooling has contributed to perceptions of “not fitting in” within schools (Blue & Pinto, 2017; Cassidy, 2015; Guinan, 2016). These findings suggest that children from Indigenous families may experience a double disadvantage, due to economic inequity and historical injustices that continue to reverberate. Given this, efforts to reduce ongoing inequities and support Indigenous learning will require substantial effort. As an example, some scholars have argued for a curriculum that embeds content based on Indigenous cultures, perspectives, and histories. This would better serve Indigenous students and foster respect for cultural diversity among non-Indigenous students (Milne, 2016). Timmons (2013) and Restoule et al. (2013) suggest that Indigenous students require comprehensive cultural supports in order to succeed in non-Indigenous postsecondary institutions.

In contrast to the aforementioned findings for single parent and Indigenous families, the academic achievement of the children of Canadian immigrants is higher than would be predicted by SES, although it varies greatly by ethnicity (Abada et al., 2009; Clandfield et al., 2014; Glick & Hohmann-Marriott, 2007). Klinger et al. (2018) noted that internationally, “with rare exceptions, immigrant students have lower levels of academic achievement than their non-immigrant peers” (p. 199). An examination of Canada’s PISA results indicates that both first- and second-generation students in Canada have similar results as their Canadian-born counterparts, but there are provincial variations (Klinger et al., 2018). Abada et al. (2009) found that most Asian immigrant children performed as well or better than their Canadian counterparts on measures of academic achievement. The children of Filipino and Black immigrants performed less well, as did some European immigrant groups such as the Portuguese (Abada et al., 2009).

Given the large intake of immigrants to Canada, the federal government has implemented a series of policy initiatives to support immigrant families. The point system used to attract highly skilled workers has attracted immigrants with high levels of education. While these families may not be able to attain economic parity based on their training, it is not surprising that immigrant children have high postsecondary participation given the strength of parental education as a predictor of children’s educational attainment (Childs, Finnie, & Martinello, 2017). The majority of skilled immigrants to Canada in the past decade have come from Asian and South Asian countries. Hence the point system may also serve to attract skilled immigrants who value further education for their children.

Educational policies in Canada have also been implemented to support immigrant children. As Volante et al. (2017) assert, educational policies in Canada facilitate the integration of immigrant students by focusing on language, cultural development, and inclusion, which provides additional supports to ameliorate potential educational disadvantages, at least for a sector of the immigrant families who come to Canada. Similar policies are now being implemented to support the children of refugees, along with targeted resources to address the trauma refugee families and children often face.

10.5 Cultural Capital, SES, and Access to Postsecondary Education

In Canada, recent provincial policy initiatives have focused on the provision of financial support for low-income students to access postsecondary education (Policy Horizons Canada, 2017). This includes specific efforts (e.g., scholarships) to attract “first-generation” students who come from families with no history of postsecondary education. Nevertheless, postsecondary participation rates for low-income youths from “at-risk” communities have not risen significantly in spite of these increased financial aid options (Cassidy, 2015; Higher Education Quality Council of Ontario, 2017; Oreopoulos, Brown, & Lavecchia, 2017).

The Canadian research on barriers to postsecondary access for students from low-income families has focused primarily on financial barriers (Belley et al., 2014; Frempong, Ma, & Mensah, 2012; Imbeau, 2017; Jones, 2014; King, Warren, King, Brook, & Kocher, 2009). For low-income Canadian students, community college and apprenticeship programs appear to be promising and lower cost, but data from the most recently available Youth in Transition Survey (YITS) in 2009 showed that 25% of low-income students dropped out of community college and roughly 40% of students failed to complete vocational apprenticeship training programs (Shaker, 2014). Davies, Maldonado, and Zarifa (2014) reported that in spite of the fact that Canadian postsecondary participation rates are rising, the percentage of students who attend from low SES backgrounds has not risen. Berger, Motte, and Parkin (2009) found that only one-quarter of low-income 19-year-old Canadians enrolled in university while 46% of high-income 19-year-olds enrolled in university. Davies et al. (2014) also found that affluent youths sought to maintain their social class status through postsecondary selection, favoring more prestigious institutions.

Ability grouping or what is more commonly known as academic streaming is another barrier for certain low-income populations deemed “at-risk.” Most secondary school systems in Canadian provinces offer high school credit courses that are streamed into “general” (or “applied”) and “advanced” levels. The advanced level credit courses are required in order to gain entry to most 4-year university programs that offer Bachelor’s degrees or higher. Students from low SES are twice as likely to be streamed into “general” or “applied level” courses (Clandfield et al., 2014; James & Turner, 2017; King et al., 2009; Lyon, Frohard-Dourlent, Fripp, & Guppy, 2014). Educational sociologists argue that teachers may have lower academic expectations for students enrolled in applied or general academic streams and that students form peer relationships within their academic streams (Parekh, Killoran, & Crawford, 2011).

Curricular differentiation through tracking creates unequal learning experiences in similar topic areas. In some instances, the content is designed for the vocational workplace context. Theoretical content is not included that would adequately prepare students for postsecondary content. Schmidt et al. (2015) studied tracking internationally, and although tracking and curricular differentiation vary between contexts, they found that tracking perpetuates socioeconomic inequality. Similar findings were published by Chmielewski (2014), who studied the effects of course-by-course tracking and SES by examining PISA scores. The author concluded that this had the effect of segregating students by SES and recommended that more empirical research be conducted in the area of international course-by-course tracking (Chmielewski, 2014).

The most recently available provincial data tables on streaming were published by Krahn and Taylor (2007) who used information from cycle 1 of Statistics Canada’s YITS. They compared streaming by ability in Ontario, Saskatchewan, Alberta, and British Columbia. The results showed a strong parental education effect. Fifteen-year-old youths who were enrolled in courses that would leave their postsecondary options open were two and half times more likely to do so if they had at least one university-educated parent. The existing research shows a strong effect of parental transmission. One explanation provided by researchers is that parents are able to transmit cultural capital to their children. Cultural capital theory refers to the accumulation of cultural knowledge that confers privilege and facilitates social mobility in a particular society (Bourdieu, 1976, 1984; Bourdieu & Passeron, 1977). Recent Canadian research has begun to examine cultural barriers (Cassidy, 2015; Childs et al., 2017; Childs, Finnie, & Mueller, 2018; Finnie, 2012; Finnie et al., 2011; Guinan, 2016).

Perna (2006) found that parents transmit cultural capital to their children that strongly influences their postsecondary decision-making. Utilizing quantitative YITS data, recent Canadian studies have identified parental educational attainment as the most important predictor of postsecondary participation for youths (Childs et al., 2017, 2018; Finnie et al., 2011). Certain forms of cultural capital such as books, attending cultural events, and other educational resources facilitated postsecondary participation among youths. Indirect benefits were high parental expectations to pursue postsecondary education and its related socialization. Finnie (2012) has argued that youths must develop a “culture of postsecondary education” that begins in early adolescence in order to increase the probability that they will attend later on. The results of the YITS showed that 40% of students who attended university reported that they had “always known” they would attend (Childs et al., 2018; Finnie, 2012). The high postsecondary participation rates of certain Canadian immigrant groups like the Chinese, Japanese, and South Asians have been attributed to parental cultural expectations that place high value on postsecondary participation (Abada et al., 2009; Cox & Strange, 2016; Klinger et al., 2018).

10.6 Evidence-Based Solutions to Reduce the Socioeconomic Achievement Gap in the Canadian Context

Decades of studies have explored the academic achievement gap between different social classes. SES differences in educational achievement remain persistent. Systemic efforts to improve outcomes for children from low SES backgrounds must be comprehensive and sustainable. Researchers have attributed some of these disparities to a combination of structural and social factors which have a cumulative effect on child academic and life outcomes. These factors include a multiplicity of overlapping socioeconomic factors such as nutrition, housing, parenting styles, household stress, the environment, and family structure (Fagan, 2017; Keeley, 2015; Thomson, Guhn, Richardson, Ark, & Shoveller, 2017). As an example, PISA scores show that 15-year-old students whose parents often read books with them during their first year of primary school show markedly higher PISA scores than students whose parents read with them infrequently or not at all (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2017). The challenge for low SES parents is that they may have irregular working hours and lack the time to devote to such tasks or may lack basic literacy skills themselves. This is one of the reasons why effective interventions must include the family.

Successful evidence-based interventions focus on addressing the structural and individual level challenges faced by low-income students and their families. Many evidence-based interventions emphasize the importance of the early years to support school readiness. Early years intervention programs are offered in most OECD countries (Fillis, Dunne, & McConnell, 2018; van Huizen & Plantenga, 2018). Canada is one of 36 member countries in the OECD. Unlike many European countries such as Sweden, Denmark, Iceland, Norway, or Finland, Canada does not have universal access to high-quality preschool programs in all provinces (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2016a). As a result, many families cannot afford to access early childhood education and care during critical periods of child development. Some researchers have linked international performance on the PISA and TIMSS to countries that have made the largest investments in early learning relative to their GDP (Merry, 2013; White, Prentice, & Perlman, 2015).

Fillis et al. (2018) conducted a systematic review of early intervention programs in Canada and the United States for 2- to 3-year olds. The intervention programs studied provided a combination of family support, cognitive and emotional development, and holistic development. The researchers failed to provide empirical evidence to support the idea that there are effective interventions for young children aged 24–36 months. Similarly, a meta-analysis of 30 studies published by van Huizen and Plantenga (2018) found mixed results for early childhood intervention programs, although they suggested that intensive, high-quality programs offered the strongest evidence for long-term positive effects.

According to Canadian economists Cleveland and Krashinsky (2003) in their report entitled Fact and Fantasy: Eight Myths About Early Childhood Education and Care, early childhood education is a key factor in reducing overall poverty rates. The researchers have determined in many studies that the social and economic benefits of a publicly financed system for early childhood education and care (ECEC) for children between the ages of 2 and 5 exceed the costs by a margin of 2:1 (Cleveland & Krashinsky, 2005). One early intervention program that has gained global prominence is Head Start, which was introduced in the United States in 1965 to target low-income, urban children. The design of the program includes cognitive, nutritional, medical, and parental support (Deming, 2009; Koehler, 2012). The United States evidence indicated that the gains for disadvantaged groups are short-term and diminish upon entering adolescence (Koehler, 2012). Nevertheless, the program has proven to have long-term effectiveness in other contexts. In Canada, the federal government invested over $170 million to introduce Aboriginal Head Start programs in Canada in 1995 and the program still exists (Health Canada & Public Health Agency of Canada, 2017).

A recent systematic program evaluation of 2000 3- to 5-year-old Aboriginal Head Start participants found statistically significant improvements in language, motor skills, and academic skills (Health Canada & Public Health Agency of Canada, 2017). A longitudinal study by Laurin et al. (2015) found that children from low socioeconomic backgrounds who received high-intensity early learning at a daycare center had significantly higher reading and mathematics scores by age 12 than those children who did not receive high-intensity early learning and care. The researchers defined high-intensity as 35 or more hours per week at a quality child care center. While the research evidence for the effectiveness of early childhood education is mixed, the research does support the fact that early interventions may be of most benefit to those with a low SES.

National and provincial educational policies are needed to ensure that students succeed regardless of their SES. According to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (2017), “A student is classified as resilient if he or she is in the bottom quarter of the PISA index of economic, social and cultural status (ESCS) in the country or economy of assessment and performs in the top quarter of students among all countries and economies, after accounting for socio-economic status” (p. 47). In Canada, about one-third of 2015 PISA test takers from low SES backgrounds were considered resilient (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2017). In many countries, resilient students account for about 40% of the low-income student population. The factors that support resilience in schooling have been found to correlate with teacher quality, opportunities for extra/tutorial support for both subject matter and language, disciplined learning environments, parenting support, and the provision of resource support—such as food, clothing, or financial aid (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2017).

Teacher quality is another factor that has been shown to improve outcomes for low-income children. Many OECD countries with high rankings on international assessments have very selective criteria for the admission of teacher candidates and offer decent compensation (Tuovinen, 2008). Campbell (2017) has argued that teacher development in Canada has contributed to relatively high PISA scores and that teacher quality and professional learning will be critical for supporting low SES children in the future. Liebenberg et al. (2016) studied 1068 Canadian youths living in marginalized communities and found that a positive student–teacher relationship had a direct moderating effect on risk factors. The authors noted that for many low socioeconomic youths, school may be the only source of formal social support. Similarly, Ingvarson and Rowley (2017) compared the processes for teacher recruitment and selection in 17 countries and concluded that those countries with policies that ensured teacher quality had students with higher scores on international tests of mathematics achievement.

Many of the most successful intervention programs aimed at increasing the participation of low-income students in postsecondary education provide extensive cultural supports in addition to financial aid (Hoxby & Turner, 2013; Oreopoulos et al., 2017; Pathways to Education, 2017). Dei (2008) and Ladson-Billings (2014) argue that educational institutions should strive to affirm the cultural identities of all students. Latif’s (2017) Canadian study of educational mobility found that public spending on education helped to foster intergenerational social mobility. Strong public financing of education at all levels from preschool to postsecondary with comprehensive supports for low-income children and youths will help to reduce the probability that SES in Canada determines one’s academic achievement.

Overall, the Canadian achievement results and research suggest that access to postsecondary education may be a defining predictor and issue to address ongoing educational challenges associated with economic disparity. Admittedly, the broader Indigenous issues and challenges described previously, coupled with the lack of success of many of the current initiatives to increase participation rates do suggest caution against adopting simplistic efforts to increase access to postsecondary education. The previous policy options and interventions discussed suggest that Canada is attempting to address the structural and sociocultural factors that contribute to socioeconomic achievement gaps. Admittedly, the progress is less than stellar and will require the ongoing commitment of the national and provincial governments.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Queen’s UniversityKingstonCanada

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