Strengthen Alzheimer’s Awareness Through Biomusic

  • Panagiota Simou
  • Pavlos Vakalos
  • Athanasios AlexiouEmail author
  • Stylianos Chatzichronis
  • Mahmoud A. Ali
  • Ioannis Haranas
  • Ioannis Gkigkitzis
  • Abdul Hafeez
  • Asma Perveen
  • Ghulam Md Ashraf


A large number of neurodegenerative diseases, the age-related dementia, and the human frailty are caused, among others, from non-folding proteins and the aggregation of them leading to neuronal death. In the case of Alzheimer’s disease, a significant number of proteins like amyloid beta and tau seem to form unordered and problematic structures, leading through unknown mechanisms to pathological conditions and implications. Additionally, few studies have already shown the possibility of composing music sculptures retrieved from biological data, either for music audience or for cases of art therapy. In this study, we use a novel algorithm in order to present complex sound sculptures based on a hypothetical computerized interaction of amyloid beta and tau. The designed algorithm is completely adjustable, regarding several sound parameters, recognizing and emphasizing common patterns between the tested proteins for the generation of acoustic stimulus to the audience, and revealing Alzheimer’s complexity and tragedy.


Alzheimer’s disease Amino acids Amyloid beta protein Art therapy Musical instrument digital interface Music neuroscience Neuroscience education Tau protein 


Conflict of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.


  1. Ahmed SH et al (2006) Essay: healing through art therapy in disaster settings. Lancet 368:S28–S29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alexiou A, Soursou G, Chatzichronis S et al (2018) Role of GTPases in the regulation of mitochondrial dynamics in Alzheimer’s disease and CNS-related disorders. Mol Neurobiol 56:4530. Scholar
  3. Brion JP, Flament-Durand J, Dustin P (1986) Alzheimer’s disease and tau proteins (letter). Lancet 2(8515):1098CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bukowska AA, Krezalek P, Mirek E, Bujas P, Marchewka A (2015) Neurologic music therapy training for mobility and stability rehabilitation with Parkinson’s disease – a pilot study. Front Hum Neurosci 9:710. Scholar
  5. Chatzichronis S, Alexiou A, Simou P, Mantzavinos V, Tsiamis V et al (2019) Neurocognitive assessment software for enrichment sensory environments. J Proteomics Bioinform 12:018–028. Scholar
  6. CLC Main Workbench website:
  7. Deuel T, Pampin J, Sundstrom J, Darvas F (2017) The encephalophone: a novel musical biofeedback device using conscious control of electroencephalogram (EEG). Front Hum Neurosci 11.
  8. Goedert M, Wischik CM, Crowther RA, Walker JE, Klug A (1988) Cloning and sequencing of the cDNA encoding a core protein of the paired helical filament of Alzheimer disease: identification as the microtubule-associated protein tau. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 85(11):4051–4055CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gold G, Herrmann F, Bouras C, Kövari E, Xekardaki A (2015) Decrease in amyloid deposition in aging brain-an autopsy study. Adv Exp Med Biol 821:9–10. Scholar
  10. Grundke-Iqbal I, Iqbal K, Quinlan M, Tung YC, Zaidi MS, Wisniewski HM (1986) Microtubule-associated protein tau. a component of Alzheimer paired helical filaments. J Biol Chem 261:6084–6089PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Grundke-Iqbal I, Vorbrodt AW, Iqbal K, Tung YC, Wang GP, Wisniewski HM (1988) Microtubule-associated polypeptides tau are altered in Alzheimer paired helical filaments. Brain Res 464:43–52PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Jovanov E, Wegner K, Radivojevic V, Starcevic D, Quinn MS, Karron DB (1999) Tactical audio and acoustic rendering in biomedical applications. IEEE Trans Inf Technol Biomed 3(2):109–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kang J, Lemaire HG, Unterbeck A, Salbaum JM, Masters CL, Grzeschik KH, Multhaup G, Beyreuther K, Muller-Hill B (1987) The precursor of Alzheimer’s disease amyloid A4 protein resembles a cell-surface receptor. Nature 325(6106):733–736CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kverno KS, Black BS, Nolan MT, Rabins PV (2009) Research on treating neuropsychiatric symptoms of advanced dementia with non-pharmacological strategies, 1998–2008: a systematic literature review. Int Psychogeriatr 21:825–843CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lustbader JW, Cirilli M, Lin C, Xu JW, Takuma K, Wang N, Caspersen C, Chen X, Pollak S, Chaney M, Trinchese F, Liu S, Gunn-Moore F, Lue LF, Walker JW, Kuppsamy P, Zewier ZL, Arancio O, Stern D, Yan SS, Wu H (2004) ABAD directly links Aβ to mitochondrial toxicity in Alzheimer’s disease. Science 304:448–452CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Mantzavinos V, Alexiou A (2017) Biomarkers for Alzheimer’s disease diagnosis. Curr Alzheimer Res 14:1149–1154. Scholar
  17. McLaurin J, Fraser PE (2000) Effect of amino-acid substitutions on Alzheimer’s amyloid-β peptide–glycosaminoglycan interactions. Eur J Biochem 267:6353–6361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Minciacchi D (2003) Translation from neurobiological data to music parameters. Ann N Y Acad Sci 999:282–301. Scholar
  19. (2019) Neurocognitive Assessment Software for Enrichment Sensory Environments (NASESE)
  20. Paul A et al (2015) The effect of sung speech on socio-communicative responsiveness in children with autism spectrum disorders. Front Hum Neurosci 9:555. Scholar
  21. Peretz I (2006) The nature of music from a biological perspective. Cognition 100(1):1–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Pérez M, Cuadros R, Benítez MJ, Jiménez JS (2004) Interaction of Alzheimer’s disease amyloid beta peptide fragment 25-35 with tau protein, and with a tau peptide containing the microtubule binding domain. J Alzheimers Dis 6(5):461–467CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Rosenboom D (1976) Biofeedback and the arts, results of early experiments. Aesthetic Research Centre of Canada Publications, VancouverGoogle Scholar
  24. Rosenboom D (1997) Extended musical interface with the human nervous system: assessment and prospectus. Available online at: [Original (1990). San Francisco: Leonardo Monograph Series,1]
  25. Rosenboom D (2014) Active imaginative listening-a neuromusical critique. Front Neurosci 8:251. Scholar
  26. Rosenboom D (2003) In: Avazini G, Faienza C, Minciacchi D (eds) Propositional music from extended musical interface with the human nervous system, The neurosciences and music, vol 999. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, NewYork, pp 263–271Google Scholar
  27. Rosenmann H, Blum D, Kayed R, Ittner LM (2012) Tau protein: function and pathology. Int J Alzheimers Dis 2012:707482PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. Rosling LK, Kitchen J (1993) Music and drawing with institutionalized elderly. Act Adapt Aging 17:27–38. Scholar
  29. Selkoe DJ (2001) Alzheimer’s disease: genes, proteins, and therapy. Physiol Rev 81:741–766CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Simou P, Tiligadis K, Alexiou A (2015) Artificial humanoid for the elderly people. In: Vlamos P, Alexiou A (eds) GeNeDis 2014, advances in experimental medicine and biology, vol 821. Springer, Switzerland. Scholar
  31. Simou P, Tiligadis K, Alexiou A (2013) Exploring artificial intelligence utilizing bioart. 9th artificial intelligence applications and innovations conference, 1st workshop on ethics and philosophy in artificial intelligence. In: Papadopoulos H et al (eds) AIAI 2013, IFIP AICT 412, ©IFIP International Federation for Information Processing 2013. Springer, Heidelberg/Paphos, pp 687–692Google Scholar
  32. Smith MA, Siedlak SL, Richey PL, Mulvihill P, Ghiso J, Frangione B, Tagliavini F, Giaccone G, Bugiani O, Praprotnik D (1995) Tau protein directly interacts with the amyloid beta-protein precursor: implications for Alzheimer’s disease. Nat Med 1(4):365–369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Vella J (2008) On teaching and learning: putting the principles and practices of into action. Jossey-Bass, San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  34. Vialatte FB, Dauwels J, Musha T, Cichocki A (2012) Audio representations of multi-channel EEG: a new tool for diagnosis of brain disorders. Am J Neurodegener Dis 1(3):292–304PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. Wald J (1983) Alzheimer’s disease and the role of art therapy in its treatment. Am J Art Ther 22:57–64PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Wang X, Su B, Siedlak SL, Moreira PI, Fujioka H, Wang Y, Casadesus G, Zhu X (2008) Amyloid-beta overproduction causes abnormal mitochondrial dynamics via differential modulation of mitochondrial fission/fusion proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105(49):19318–19323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Websites for arts in dementia and AD management:Google Scholar
  38.  Alzheimer’s poetry project.
  39.  Arts4Dementia.
  40.  Arts for dementia.
  41.  Creative dementia arts network.
  42.  Dementia arts.
  43.  Meet Mre at MoMA.
  44.  Music & memory.
  45.  The Society for the Arts in Dementia Care,
  46. Wu D, Liu Y, Yao DZ (2009) Listen to the brain in real time – the Chengdu brainwave music. J Electrochem Sci Technol China 7:1Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Panagiota Simou
    • 1
  • Pavlos Vakalos
    • 2
  • Athanasios Alexiou
    • 1
    • 3
    Email author
  • Stylianos Chatzichronis
    • 4
    • 1
  • Mahmoud A. Ali
    • 5
  • Ioannis Haranas
    • 6
  • Ioannis Gkigkitzis
    • 7
  • Abdul Hafeez
    • 8
  • Asma Perveen
    • 9
  • Ghulam Md Ashraf
    • 10
    • 11
  1. 1.Novel Global Community Educational FoundationHebershamAustralia
  2. 2.Independent Musician-ResearcherThessalonikiGreece
  3. 3.AFNP MedWienAustria
  4. 4.Department of Informatics and Telecommunications, Bioinformatics ProgramNational and Kapodistrian University of AthensAthensGreece
  5. 5.Biotechnology Program, Faculty of AgricultureCairo UniversityGizaEgypt
  6. 6.Dept. of Physics and Computer ScienceWilfrid Laurier UniversityWaterlooCanada
  7. 7.NOVA, Department of MathematicsAnnandaleUSA
  8. 8.Glocal School of PharmacyGlocal UniversitySaharanpurIndia
  9. 9.Glocal School of Life SciencesGlocal UniversitySaharanpurIndia
  10. 10.King Fahd Medical Research CenterKing Abdulaziz UniversityJeddahSaudi Arabia
  11. 11.Department of Medical Laboratory Technology, Faculty of Applied Medical SciencesKing Abdulaziz UniversityJeddahSaudi Arabia

Personalised recommendations