Skip to main content

Introduction

  • 226 Accesses

Abstract

Novel viral hemorrhagic fever named “severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) (N Engl J Med 364:1523–1532, 2011)” or “fever, thrombocytopenia and leukopenia syndrome (FTLS) (PLoS Pathog 7:e1002369, 2011)”, both of which are an identical disease, was discovered in China. SFTS is a tick-borne and generalized infection caused by SFTS virus (SFTSV), which is classified in the genus of Phlebovirus of the Bunyaviridae family, with high morbidity and mortality. According the the recent International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses, the name of the virus has been changed from SFTSV to Huaiyangshan bangyangvirus, Banyangvirus genus of the Phenuiviridae family. However, the names of the disease and the virus used in this textbook are SFTS and SFTSV, respectively, because the disease and virus names have been used and recognaized widely and internationally so far. It was later discovered that SFTS was endemic not only to China, but also to South Korea and Japan. The research on SFTSV and SFTS has been conducted by many researchers in terms of virology, pathophyisiology, pathogogy, entemology, epidemiology, veterinary science, developmet of specific treatments and preventive measures for SFTS. The discovery of SFTS might be one of the great achievements in infectious disease science history in a decade. SFTSV is maintained in nature in East Asia. It is desired to develop effective treatments for patients with SFTS and preventive measures for people at risk in the endemic regions. In this chaper, the author summarized the general features of SFTS obtained through the intensive studies on SFTS so far from the discovery of this novel virus infection to the development of specific treatments and preventive measures. It is evident that the studies on SFTSV and SFTS has just started and there are many issues to be addressed.

Keywords

  • Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome
  • Novel bunyavirus
  • Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-981-13-9562-8_1
  • Chapter length: 14 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   139.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-981-13-9562-8
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Softcover Book
USD   179.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Hardcover Book
USD   179.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Fig. 1.1

References

  • Bente DA, Forrester NL, Watts DM, McAuley AJ, Whitehouse CA, Bray M (2013) Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever: history, epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical syndrome and genetic diversity. Antivir Res 100:159–189

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Chen H, Hu K, Zou J, Xiao J (2013) A cluster of cases of human-to-human transmission caused by severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome bunyavirus. Int J Infect Dis 17:e206–e208

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Cui F, Cao HX, Wang L, Zhang SF, Ding SJ, Yu XJ, Yu H (2013) Clinical and epidemiological study on severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome in Yiyuan County, Shandong Province, China. Am J Trop Med Hyg 88:510–512

    PubMed  PubMed Central  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Cui L, Ge Y, Qi X, Xu G, Li H, Zhao K, Wu B, Shi Z, Guo X, Hu L, You Q, Zhang LH, Freiberg AN, Yu X, Wang H, Zhou M, Tang YW (2012) Detection of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus by reverse transcription-cross-priming amplification coupled with vertical flow visualization. J Clin Microbiol 50:3881–3885

    PubMed  PubMed Central  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Deng B, Zhang S, Geng Y, Zhang Y, Wang Y, Yao W, Wen Y, Cui W, Zhou Y, Gu Q, Wang W, Shao Z, Li C, Wang D, Zhao Y, Liu P (2012) Cytokine and chemokine levels in patients with severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus. PLoS One 7:e41365

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Deng B, Zhou B, Zhang S, Zhu Y, Han L, Geng Y, Jin Z, Liu H, Wang D, Zhao Y, Wen Y, Cui W, Zhou Y, Gu Q, Sun C, Lu X, Wang W, Wang Y, Li C, Yao W, Liu P (2013) Clinical features and factors associated with severity and fatality among patients with severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome Bunyavirus infection in Northeast China. PLoS One 8:e80802

    PubMed  PubMed Central  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Dong F, Li D, Wen D, Li S, Zhao C, Qi Y, Jangra RK, Wu C, Xia D, Zhang X, Deng F, Chandran K, Zou Z, Yuan F, Zheng A (2019) Single dose of a rVSV-based vaccine elicits complete protection against severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus. NPJ Vaccines 4:5

    PubMed  PubMed Central  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Erduran E, Cakir M (2010) Reactive hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever. Int J Infect Dis 14(Suppl 3):e349–e350

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Ergonul O (2007) Clinical and pathologic features of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever. In: Ergonul O, Whitehouse CA (eds) Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever: a global perspective. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 207–220

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Furuta Y, Takahashi K, Fukuda Y, Kuno M, Kamiyama T, Kozaki K, Nomura N, Egawa H, Minami S, Watanabe Y, Narita H, Shiraki K (2002) In vitro and in vivo activities of anti-influenza virus compound T-705. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46:977–981

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Gong L, Song DD, Wu JB, Cao MH, Su B, Sun Y, Lyu Y, Zhang L, Wang F, He YX, Wang JS (2018) Human-to-human transmissions of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus in Anhui province, 2010–2017. Clin Microbiol Infect 24:920–922

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Gowen BB, Westover JB, Miao J, Van Wettere AJ, Rigas JD, Hickerson BT, Jung KH, Li R, Conrad BL, Nielson S, Furuta Y, Wang Z (2017) Modeling severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus infection in golden Syrian hamsters: importance of STAT2 in preventing disease and effective treatment with favipiravir. J Virol 91:e01942–e01916

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hiraki T, Yoshimitsu M, Suzuki T, Goto Y, Higashi M, Yokoyama S, Tabuchi T, Futatsuki T, Nakamura K, Hasegawa H, Saijo M, Kakihana Y, Arima N, Yonezawa S (2014) Two autopsy cases of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) in Japan: a pathognomonic histological feature and unique complication of SFTS. Pathol Int 64:569–575

    PubMed  PubMed Central  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hoogstraal H (1979) The epidemiology of tick-borne Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Asia, Europe, and Africa. J Med Entomol 15:307–417

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Jia B, Wu W, Huang R, Wang G, Song P, Li Y, Liu Y, Xiong Y, Yan X, Hao Y, Xia J, Zhang Z, Chen Y, Wu C (2018) Characterization of clinical features and outcome for human-to-human transmitted severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome. Infect Dis 50:601–608

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Jiao Y, Zeng X, Guo X, Qi X, Zhang X, Shi Z, Zhou M, Bao C, Zhang W, Xu Y, Wang H (2012) Preparation and evaluation of recombinant severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus nucleocapsid protein for detection of total antibodies in human and animal sera by double-antigen sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. J Clin Microbiol 50:372–377

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Jung IY, Choi W, Kim J, Wang E, Park SW, Lee WJ, Choi JY, Kim HY, Uh Y, Kim YK (2019) Nosocomial person-to-person transmission of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome. Clin Microbiol Infect 25:633.e1–633.e4

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kaneko M, Maruta M, Shikata H, Asou K, Shinomiya H, Suzuki T, Hasegawa H, Shimojima M, Saijo M (2017) Unusual presentation of a severely ill patient having severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome: a case report. J Med Case Rep 11:27

    PubMed  PubMed Central  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kaneko M, Shikata H, Matsukage S, Maruta M, Shinomiya H, Suzuki T, Hasegawa H, Shimojima M, Saijo M (2018) A patient with severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis-associated involvement of the central nervous system. J Infect Chemother 24:292–297

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kaneyuki S, Yoshikawa T, Tani H, Fukushi S, Taniguchi S, Fukuma A, Shimojima M, Kurosu T, Morikawa S, Saijo M (2016) Ulcerative lesions with hemorrhage in a patient with severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome observed via upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Jpn J Infect Dis 69:525–527

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kato H, Yamagishi T, Shimada T, Matsui T, Shimojima M, Saijo M, Oishi K (2016) Epidemiological and clinical features of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome in Japan, 2013–2014. PLoS One 11:e0165207

    PubMed  PubMed Central  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kim KH, Lee MJ, Ko MK, Lee EY, Yi J (2018) Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome patients with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis retrospectively identified in Korea, 2008–2013. J Korean Med Sci 33:e319

    PubMed  PubMed Central  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kim N, Kim KH, Lee SJ, Park SH, Kim IS, Lee EY, Yi J (2016) Bone marrow findings in severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome: prominent haemophagocytosis and its implication in haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. J Clin Pathol 69:537–541

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kitao A, Ieki R, Takatsu H, Tachibana Y, Nagae M, Hino T, Nakaji H, Shimojima M, Saijo M, Okayama M, Kenzaka T (2016) Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome presenting as hemophagocytic syndrome: two case reports. Springerplus 5:361

    PubMed  PubMed Central  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kwon JS, Kim MC, Kim JY, Jeon NY, Ryu BH, Hong J, Kim MJ, Chong YP, Lee SO, Choi SH, Kim YS, Woo JH, Kim SH (2018) Kinetics of viral load and cytokines in severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome. J Clin Virol 101:57–62

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Lee J, Jeong G, Lim JH, Kim H, Park SW, Lee WJ, Jun JB (2016) Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome presenting with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Infect Chemother 48:338–341

    PubMed  PubMed Central  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Li H, Lu QB, Xing B, Zhang SF, Liu K, Du J, Li XK, Cui N, Yang ZD, Wang LY, Hu JG, Cao WC, Liu W (2018) Epidemiological and clinical features of laboratory-diagnosed severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome in China, 2011–17: a prospective observational study. Lancet Infect Dis 18:1127–1137

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Li J, Han Y, Xing Y, Li S, Kong L, Zhang Y, Zhang L, Liu N, Wang Q, Wang S, Lu S, Huang Z (2014) Concurrent measurement of dynamic changes in viral load, serum enzymes, T cell subsets, and cytokines in patients with severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome. PLoS One 9:e91679

    PubMed  PubMed Central  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Li Z, Qi X, Zhou M, Bao C, Hu J, Wu B, Wang S, Tan Z, Fu J, Shan J, Zhu Y, Tang F (2013) A two-tube multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay for the detection of four hemorrhagic fever viruses: severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus, Hantaan virus, Seoul virus, and dengue virus. Arch Virol 158:1857–1863

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Liu L, Zhang QF, Li C, Li JD, Jiang XL, Zhang FS, Wu W, Liang MF, Li DX (2013a) A double antibody sandwich ELISA based assay for titration of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus. Zhonghua Shi Yan He Lin Chuang Bing Du Xue Za Zhi 27:215–217. (in Chinese)

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Liu MM, Lei XY, Yu H, Zhang JZ, Yu XJ (2017) Correlation of cytokine level with the severity of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome. Virol J 14:6

    PubMed  PubMed Central  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Liu W, Lu QB, Cui N, Li H, Wang LY, Liu K, Yang ZD, Wang BJ, Wang HY, Zhang YY, Zhuang L, Hu CY, Yuan C, Fan XJ, Wang Z, Zhang L, Zhang XA, Walker DH, Cao WC (2013b) Case-fatality ratio and effectiveness of ribavirin therapy among hospitalized patients in China who had severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome. Clin Infect Dis 57:1292–1299

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Moming A, Zhang Y, Chang C, Yu H, Wang M, Hu Z, Deng F, Sun S (2017) Antigenicity of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus nucleocapsid protein and its potential application in the virus serodiagnosis. Virol Sin 32:97–100

    PubMed  PubMed Central  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Nakano A, Ogawa H, Nakanishi Y, Fujita H, Mahara F, Shiogama K, Tsutsumi Y, Takeichi T (2017) Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in a fatal case of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome. Intern Med 56:1597–1602

    PubMed  PubMed Central  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Saijo M (2018) Pathophysiology of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome and development of specific antiviral therapy. J Infect Chemother 24:773–781

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Shin J, Kwon D, Youn SK, Park JH (2015) Characteristics and factors associated with death among patients hospitalized for severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome, South Korea, 2013. Emerg Infect Dis 21:1704–1710

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Shin SY, Cho OH, Bae IG (2016) Bone marrow suppression and Hemophagocytic histiocytes are common findings in Korean severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome patients. Yonsei Med J 57:1286–1289

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Song P, Zheng N, Zhang L, Liu Y, Chen T, Bao C, Li Z, Yong W, Zhang Y, Wu C, Wu Z (2017) Downregulation of interferon-beta and inhibition of TLR3 expression are associated with fatal outcome of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome. Sci Rep 7:6532

    PubMed  PubMed Central  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Sun Y, Jin C, Zhan F, Wang X, Liang M, Zhang Q, Ding S, Guan X, Huo X, Li C, Qu J, Wang Q, Zhang S, Zhang Y, Wang S, Xu A, Bi Z, Li D (2012) Host cytokine storm is associated with disease severity of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome. J Infect Dis 206:1085–1094

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Takahashi T, Maeda K, Suzuki T, Ishido A, Shigeoka T, Tominaga T, Kamei T, Honda M, Ninomiya D, Sakai T, Senba T, Kaneyuki S, Sakaguchi S, Satoh A, Hosokawa T, Kawabe Y, Kurihara S, Izumikawa K, Kohno S, Azuma T, Suemori K, Yasukawa M, Mizutani T, Omatsu T, Katayama Y, Miyahara M, Ijuin M, Doi K, Okuda M, Umeki K, Saito T, Fukushima K, Nakajima K, Yoshikawa T, Tani H, Fukushi S, Fukuma A, Ogata M, Shimojima M, Nakajima N, Nagata N, Katano H, Fukumoto H, Sato Y, Hasegawa H, Yamagishi T, Oishi K, Kurane I, Morikawa S, Saijo M (2014) The first identification and retrospective study of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome in Japan. J Infect Dis 209:816–827

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Tang X, Wu W, Wang H, Du Y, Liu L, Kang K, Huang X, Ma H, Mu F, Zhang S, Zhao G, Cui N, Zhu BP, You A, Chen H, Liu G, Chen W, Xu B (2013) Human-to-human transmission of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome bunyavirus through contact with infectious blood. J Infect Dis 207:736–739

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Tani H, Fukuma A, Fukushi S, Taniguchi S, Yoshikawa T, Iwata-Yoshikawa N, Sato Y, Suzuki T, Nagata N, Hasegawa H, Kawai Y, Uda A, Morikawa S, Shimojima M, Watanabe H, Saijo M (2016) Efficacy of T-705 (favipiravir) in the treatment of infections with lethal severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus. mSphere 1:e00061–e00015

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Tani H, Komeno T, Fukuma A, Fukushi S, Taniguchi S, Shimojima M, Uda A, Morikawa S, Nakajima N, Furuta Y, Saijo M (2018) Therapeutic effects of favipiravir against severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus infection in a lethal mouse model: dose-efficacy studies upon oral administration. PLoS One 13:e0206416

    PubMed  PubMed Central  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Tasdelen Fisgin N, Fisgin T, Tanyel E, Doganci L, Tulek N, Guler N, Duru F (2008) Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever: five patients with hemophagocytic syndrome. Am J Hematol 83:73–76

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Uehara N, Yano T, Ishihara A, Saijou M, Suzuki T (2016) Fatal severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome: an autopsy case report. Intern Med 55:831–838

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Xu B, Liu L, Huang X, Ma H, Zhang Y, Du Y, Wang P, Tang X, Wang H, Kang K, Zhang S, Zhao G, Wu W, Yang Y, Chen H, Mu F, Chen W (2011) Metagenomic analysis of fever, thrombocytopenia and leukopenia syndrome (FTLS) in Henan Province, China: discovery of a new bunyavirus. PLoS Pathog 7:e1002369

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Xu H, Zhang L, Shen G, Feng C, Wang X, Yan J, Zhang Y (2013) Establishment of a novel one-step reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid identification of RNA from the severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus. J Virol Methods 194:21–25

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Yoshikawa T, Fukushi S, Tani H, Fukuma A, Taniguchi S, Toda S, Shimazu Y, Yano K, Morimitsu T, Ando K, Yoshikawa A, Kan M, Kato N, Motoya T, Kuzuguchi T, Nishino Y, Osako H, Yumisashi T, Kida K, Suzuki F, Takimoto H, Kitamoto H, Maeda K, Takahashi T, Yamagishi T, Oishi K, Morikawa S, Saijo M, Shimojima M (2014) Sensitive and specific PCR systems for detection of both Chinese and Japanese severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus strains and prediction of patient survival based on viral load. J Clin Microbiol 52:3325–3333

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Yoshikawa T, Shimojima M, Fukushi S, Tani H, Fukuma A, Taniguchi S, Singh H, Suda Y, Shirabe K, Toda S, Shimazu Y, Nomachi T, Gokuden M, Morimitsu T, Ando K, Yoshikawa A, Kan M, Uramoto M, Osako H, Kida K, Takimoto H, Kitamoto H, Terasoma F, Honda A, Maeda K, Takahashi T, Yamagishi T, Oishi K, Morikawa S, Saijo M (2015) Phylogenetic and geographic relationships of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus in China, South Korea, and Japan. J Infect Dis 212:889–898

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Yu F, Du Y, Huang X, Ma H, Xu B, Adungo F, Hayasaka D, Buerano CC, Morita K (2015) Application of recombinant severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus nucleocapsid protein for the detection of SFTSV-specific human IgG and IgM antibodies by indirect ELISA. Virol J 12:117

    PubMed  PubMed Central  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Yu XJ, Liang MF, Zhang SY, Liu Y, Li JD, Sun YL, Zhang L, Zhang QF, Popov VL, Li C, Qu J, Li Q, Zhang YP, Hai R, Wu W, Wang Q, Zhan FX, Wang XJ, Kan B, Wang SW, Wan KL, Jing HQ, Lu JX, Yin WW, Zhou H, Guan XH, Liu JF, Bi ZQ, Liu GH, Ren J, Wang H, Zhao Z, Song JD, He JR, Wan T, Zhang JS, Fu XP, Sun LN, Dong XP, Feng ZJ, Yang WZ, Hong T, Zhang Y, Walker DH, Wang Y, Li DX (2011) Fever with thrombocytopenia associated with a novel bunyavirus in China. N Engl J Med 364:1523–1532

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Yun SM, Lee WG, Ryou J, Yang SC, Park SW, Roh JY, Lee YJ, Park C, Han MG (2014) Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus in ticks collected from humans, South Korea, 2013. Emerg Infect Dis 20:1358–1361

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgement

I thank all the collaborators, who have contributed to the SFTS study. Some data presented in this chapter had been obtained in the research financially supported by the Research Grant from the Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare (MHLW) of Japan (grant in aid, H25-Shinko-Shitei-009), and the Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development (AMED, 18fk0108002, 18fk0108072, 19fk0108081).

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Masayuki Saijo .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2019 Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

About this chapter

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this chapter

Saijo, M. (2019). Introduction. In: Saijo, M. (eds) Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome. Springer, Singapore. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-9562-8_1

Download citation