This chapter summarises the major findings of this book. Differences of ethnicity occur within the group, and cadres of different generations demonstrate different orientations towards the expression of ethnicity. Ethnopolitics in China has a profound influence in shaping Yi ethnicity, but it does not always lead to a politicised identity. Collective memory and emotion, counter-discourse and new interpretations of identity can be observed within the group, which clearly shows the fluidity and situational characteristics of ethnicity. Chinese ethnic issues are complicated: there are problems with politicising ethnicity as well as “ethnicising” social problems. The discussions of ethnopolitics, modernity and ethnicity will continue.
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