Emerging and Re-emerging Water-Associated Infectious Diseases

  • Swatantra Kumar
  • Vimal K. Maurya
  • Shailendra K. SaxenaEmail author


Expanding human population, globalization, deforestation, altered ecosystem, and microbial evolution are the most convergent forces for the evolution of infectious diseases which are associated with water. Emerging and re-emerging water-associated infectious diseases are defined as infectious diseases which have newly emerged among a population or existing in nature with rapid expansion of incident or geographic range. In order to overcome these infections, better prevention strategies such as an effective vaccination and advancement in drug discovery are crucial. Various newly or emerging pathogens have been evolved due to contaminated water in the recent years. The factors for the arising of novel pathogens are the escalating number of human population vulnerable to specific probable pathogens. Changes in human demographics and behavior, breakdown of public health measures, microbial adaptation, and changes in agricultural practices are the major factors responsible for the progression of water-associated infectious diseases.


Typhoid Legionellosis Leptospirosis Helicobacter pylori Coxsackie viruses Rotaviruses Dengue Zika 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Swatantra Kumar
    • 1
  • Vimal K. Maurya
    • 1
  • Shailendra K. Saxena
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Centre for Advanced Research, Faculty of Medicine, King George’s Medical UniversityLucknowIndia

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