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Epidemiology of Water-Associated Infectious Diseases

  • Swatantra Kumar
  • Amrita Haikerwal
  • Shailendra K. SaxenaEmail author
Chapter
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Abstract

Infection pervasiveness is significantly related to the exposure and rate of transmission which are influenced by ecological factors, for example, precipitation, air/water temperature, and seasonal variability. Vibrio cholerae is solely responsible for approximately 1.7 million cases annually with 525,000 deaths in children below 5 years. Similarly, enteric fever (typhoid) is a severe systemic infection and is the foremost public health water-borne infectious disease with an estimated 26 million cases annually in the same way. Giardia intestinalis is the foremost cause of parasitic infection in the USA with an estimated 1.2 million cases and 3581 reported hospitalizations annually. So far, three species of schistosome have been archived including Schistosoma haematobium which causes urogenital disease in sub-Saharan Africa. According to WHO-World Malaria Report-2016, 212 million cases along with 429,000 deaths were reported in the year 2015. Shigellosis is caused by a group of bacteria known as Shigella with an estimated 500,000 cases annually in the USA. Recently around 6000 cases of Legionellosis were reported in the USA in the year 2015.

Keywords

Transmission risk Case fatality rate Water-borne Global technical strategy Life cycle Prevalence Morbidity Mortality 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Swatantra Kumar
    • 1
  • Amrita Haikerwal
    • 1
  • Shailendra K. Saxena
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Centre for Advanced Research, Faculty of Medicine, King George’s Medical UniversityLucknowIndia

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