Etiological Agents of Water-Associated Infectious Diseases

  • Swatantra Kumar
  • Amrita Haikerwal
  • Shailendra K. SaxenaEmail author


Based on the origin etiological agents of water-associated infectious diseases are mainly classified into five categories as water-based, water-borne, water-related, water-washed, and water-dispersed. Huge number of diseases are associated with water-borne infections including typhoid fever, cholera, and bacillary dysentery. The principal pathways involved in the transmission of water-borne diseases can be described as 5F concept which are fluids, finger, food, fields, and flies. Water-based etiological agents are mainly worms which spend a part of their life cycle in water bodies. Schistosomiasis is the best known classical example of water-based infectious disease. Water-related infectious diseases are zoonotic in nature where breeding of vectors such as mosquitoes and insects may serve as an initial replication of pathogens and eventually results in the disease transmission from vector to dead-end host. Poor personal and domestic hygiene can be associated with water-washed diseases which are related to clean water deprivation resulting in contact of eye or skin with contaminated water.


Water-based Water-related Water-washed and Water-dispersed Vector borne Fecal contamination Transmission 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Swatantra Kumar
    • 1
  • Amrita Haikerwal
    • 1
  • Shailendra K. Saxena
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Centre for Advanced Research, Faculty of Medicine, King George’s Medical UniversityLucknowIndia

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