Treatment of Water to Prevent Water-Associated Infectious Diseases

  • Amrita Haikerwal
  • Swatantra Kumar
  • Shailendra K. SaxenaEmail author


As contaminated water is increasingly associated with infectious diseases, the basic services like safe drinking water, hygiene, and sanitation need to be monitored regularly. With the accelerating scientific advancements, detection and enumeration of water-associated pathogens are possible during emergencies and outbreaks of infectious diseases. The best recommended tests for screening of water-associated pathogens are based on detection of the nucleic acid such as PCR, 16S rRNA, FISH, and DNA microarrays. Various methods are used to reduce the microbial burden of drinking water. A number of awareness programs on basic health facilities are necessary to educate the rural population of developed and developing countries. Drugs and vaccines are available for the treatment and prevention of water-related infectious pathogens.


Basic hygiene Sanitation Disinfection Antibiotics Public health measures 


  1. 1.
    World Health Organization (2003) Emerging issues in water and infectious disease. WHO, Geneva. Accessed on 6-11-2017Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lee SH, Joung M, Yoon S, Choi K, Park WY, Yu JR (2010) Multiplex PCR detection of water-borne intestinal protozoa: Microsporidia, Cyclospora, and Cryptosporidium. Korean J Parasitol 48(4):297–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Dick LK, Field KG (2004) Rapid estimation of numbers of fecal Bacteroidetes by use of a quantitative PCR assay for 16S rRNA genes. Appl Environ Microbiol 70(9):5695–5697CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Moreno Y, Ferrús MA, Alonso JL, Jiménez A, Hernández J (2003) Use of fluorescent in situ hybridization to evidence the presence of Helicobacter pylori in water. Water Res 37(9):2251–2256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lee DY, Seto P, Korczak R (2010) DNA microarray-based detection and identification of water-borne protozoan pathogens. J Microbiol Methods 80(2):129–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dover JE, Hwang GM, Mullen EH, Prorok BC, Suh SJ (2009) Recent advances in peptide probe-based biosensors for detection of infectious agents. J Microbiol Methods 78(1):10–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Coloma J, Harris E (2009) Molecular genomic approaches to infectious diseases in resource-limited settings. PLoS Med 6(10):1–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sharma A, Baral D, Rawat K, Solanki PR, Bohidar HB (2015) Biocompatible capped iron oxide nanoparticles for Vibrio cholerae detection. Nanotechnology 26(17):175302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    World Health Organization (2013) Cleaning and disinfecting water storage tanks and tankers. WHO, Geneva. Accessed on 7-11-2017Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    World Health Organization (2013) Emergency treatment of drinking-water at the point of use. WHO, Geneva. Accessed on 7-11-2017Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Daelman MR, van Voorthuizen EM, van Dongen UG, Volcke EI, van Loosdrecht MC (2012) Methane emission during municipal wastewater treatment. Water Res 46(11):3657–3670CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Metreveli G, Wågberg L, Emmoth E, Belák S, Strømme M, Mihranyan A (2014) A size-exclusion nanocellulose filter paper for virus removal. Adv Healthc Mater 3(10):1546–1550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    van der Laan H, van Halem D, Smeets PW, Soppe AI, Kroesbergen J, Wubbels G, Nederstigt J, Gensburger I, Heijman SG (2014) Bacteria and virus removal effectiveness of ceramic pot filters with different silver applications in a long term experiment. Water Res 51:47–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Fiorentino A, Ferro G, Alferez MC, Polo-López MI, Fernández-Ibañez P, Rizzo L (2015) Inactivation and regrowth of multidrug resistant bacteria in urban waste water after disinfection by solar-driven and chlorination processes. J Photochem Photobiol B 148:43–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Nguyen MT, Jasper JT, Boehm AB, Nelson KL (2015) Sunlight inactivation of fecal indicator bacteria in open-water unit process treatment wetlands: modeling endogenous and exogenous inactivation rates. Water Res 83:282–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    World Health Organization (2013) Hygiene promotion in emergencies. WHO, Geneva. Accessed on 08-3-2018Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Haikerwal A, Bhatt MLB, Saxena SK (2017) Reducing the global burden of dengue: steps toward preventive methods. Arch Prev Med 2(1):028–033CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    World Health Organization (2013) Technical options for excreta disposal in emergencies. Accessed on 08-3-2018
  19. 19.
    World Health Organization (2013) Disposal of dead bodies in emergency conditions. Accessed on 12-3-2018
  20. 20.
    The RTS,S malaria vaccine candidate (2017) PATH. Accessed on 12-3-2018
  21. 21.
    Typhoid vaccines (2012) CDC. Accessed on 8-3-2018
  22. 22.
    World Health Organization (2003) Background document: the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of typhoid fever. Accessed on 8-3-2018
  23. 23.
    Saxena SK, Haikerwal A, Gadugu S, Bhatt MLB (2017) Complementary and alternative medicine in alliance with conventional medicine for dengue therapeutics and prevention. Future Virol 121(8):399–402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Haikerwal A, Kumar S, Kant R, Saxena SK (2017) Potential therapeutics for dengue virus infection. Ann Pharmacol Pharm 2(8):1–6Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    World Health Organization (2017) Schistosomiasis. WHO, Geneva. Accessed on 8-3-2018Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Barda B, Coulibaly JT, Hatz C, Keiser J (2017) Ultrasonographic evaluation of urinary tract morbidity in school-aged and preschool-aged children infected with Schistosoma haematobium and its evolution after praziquantel treatment: a randomized controlled trial. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 11(2):1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Cope JR, Conrad DA, Cohen N, Cotilla M, DaSilva A, Jackson J, Visvesvara GS (2016) Use of the novel therapeutic agent Miltefosine for the treatment of primary Amebic meningoencephalitis: report of 1 fatal and 1 surviving case. Clin Infect Dis 62(6):774–776CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Linam WM, Ahmed M, Cope JR, Chu C, Visvesvara GS, da Silva AJ, Qvarnstrom Y, Green J (2015) Successful treatment of an adolescent with Naegleria fowleri primary amebic meningoencephalitis. Pediatrics 135(3):2014–2292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Coronato-Nunes B, Calegar DA, Monteiro KJ, Hubert-Jaeger L, Reis ER, das Chagas Xavier SC, Carpp LN, Lima MM, Bóia MN, Carvalho-Costa FA (2017) Giardia intestinalis infection associated with malnutrition in children living in northeastern Brazil. J Infect Dev Ctries 11(7):563–570CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Amrita Haikerwal
    • 1
  • Swatantra Kumar
    • 1
  • Shailendra K. Saxena
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Centre for Advanced Research, Faculty of Medicine, King George’s Medical UniversityLucknowIndia

Personalised recommendations